http://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/actualidadesActualidades en Psicología ISSN Impreso: 0258-6444 ISSN electrónico: 2215-3535

El Modelo Procesual de Acción en Salud como un marco de referencia teórico para entender el cambio de conducta

Ralf Schwarzer



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15517/ap.v30i121.23458

Resumen


 Se presenta un marco de referencia para explicar, predecir, y modificar conductas de salud el cual consiste en varios constructos psicológicos y un mecanismo de mediación. La percepción de riesgo, las expectativas de resultado, la autoeficacia, la intención, y el control de acción constituyen los bloques de construcción para un modelo de mediación que está basado en dos procesos: el establecimiento de metas y la consecución de metas. Cuando se trata del desarrollo de intervenciones para modificar conductas, uno puede apuntar hacia la fase inicial de motivación, o bien, hacia la fase volitiva subsecuente. Este es un marco de referencia abierto, que permite varios diseños de investigación y un subconjunto de constructos. Se han realizado cientos de estudios basados en este modelo, de los cuales se escoge, como ilustración, tres estudios correlacionales y dos estudios de intervención, que abordan actividad física en Alemania y Costa Rica, higiene dental en India y Polonia, y uso de mascarillas contra el polvo en China. Estos difieren en términos de predictores que emergen como predictores más relevantes para el cambio de conductas.


Palabras clave


expectativas de resultado; autoeficacia; planeamiento; control de la acción; auto-monitoreo

Texto completo:

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Referencias


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