http://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/agromesoAgronomía Mesoamericana ISSN electrónico: 2215-3608

La sal en el queso: diversas interacciones.

Juan Sabastián Ramírez-Navas, Jessica Aguirre-Londoño, Víctor Alexander Aristizabal-Ferreira, Sandra Castro-Narváez



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15517/am.v28i1.21909

Resumen


El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el efecto de la sal sobre algunas propiedades físicas del queso, su interacción con los componentes del queso, y el efecto del contenido de sodio sobre la salud de los consumidores. La sal es un ingrediente importante, ya que determina en gran parte la calidad del producto y la aceptación del consumidor. El salado del queso tiene in uencia en la calidad debido a sus efectos sobre la composición, el crecimiento microbiano y la actividad enzimática. Ejerce una in uencia signi cativa sobre la reología y textura, así como en la maduración, principalmente a través de sus efectos sobre la actividad del agua. Los niveles de sal en queso van desde aproximadamente 0,6% p/p hasta aproximadamente 7% p/p. Debido a que el consumo de queso está aumentando en todo el mundo, se debe dar importancia a la reducción de la sal sin afectar su consumo. Entre las estrategias que se han planteado con tal n está la sustitución parcial de la sal por otros compuestos. Pero el inconveniente de la sustitución del NaCl es su efecto sobre las propiedades sensoriales, la composición química, la proteólisis y la textura del queso. Otra interesante alternativa para el reemplazo del NaCl, es el uso de la tecnología de membranas para obtener permeado rico en sales provenientes del lactosuero; la adición de estas sales en la elaboración quesera, produce quesos bajos en sodio, con buena textura. 


Palabras clave


subproductos de leche, propiedades organolépticas, cloruro sódico, salud.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


Agarwal, S., D. McCoy, W. Graves, P.D. Gerard, and S. Clark. 2011. Sodium content in retail cheddar, mozzarella, and process cheeses varies considerably in the United States. J. Dairy Sci. 94:1605-1615. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-3782

Aguirre, J., y V. Aristizabal. 2013. Estudio de la correlación instrumental y sensorial del sabor salado de queso fresco. Universidad Santiago de Cali, Cali, COL.

Allender, P.S., J.A. Cutler, D. Follmann, F.P. Cappuccio, J. Pryer, and P. Elliott. 1996. Dietary calcium and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann. Intern. Med. 124:825-31.

Ares, J.L. 2002. Caracterización cualitativa de los quesos tradicionales elaborados en empresas ganaderas de Andalucía. An. R. Acad. Cienc. Vet. Andalucía Oriental 15:161-210.

Ash, A., and A. Wilbey. 2010. The nutritional signi cance of cheese in the UK diet. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 63:305- 319. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0307.2010.00606.x.

Ayyash, M.M., and N.P. Shah. 2011a. The effect of substituting NaCl with KCl on nabulsi cheese: chemical composition, total viable count, and texture pro le. J. Dairy Sci. 94:2741-2751. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3976

Ayyash, M.M., and N.P. Shah. 2011b. The effect of substitution of NaCl with KCl on chemical composition and functional properties of low-moisture mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 94:3761-3768. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-4103

Ayyash, M.M., F. Sherkat, P. Francis, R.P.W. Williams, and N.P. Shah. 2011. The effect of sodium chloride substitution with potassium chloride on texture pro le and microstructure of halloumi cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 94:37-42. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3407

Ayyash, M.M., F. Sherkat, and N.P. Shah. 2012. The effect of NaCl substitution with KCl on akawi cheese: chemical composition, proteolysis, angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity, probiotic survival, texture pro le, and sensory properties. J. Dairy Sci. 95:4747- 4759. doi:10.3168/jds.2011-4940

Ayyash, M.M., F. Sherkat, and N.P. Shah. 2013. The effect of NaCl substitution with KCl on proteinase activities of cell-free extract and cell-free supernatant at different pH levels and salt concentrations: Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei. J. Dairy Sci. 96:40-49.

doi:10.3168/jds.2012-5761

Blanco, M., y L. Granados. 2007. Queso turrialba. FAO, IICA, San José, CRC.

Botella-Romero, F., J.J. Alfaro-Martínez, y A. Hernández- López. 2015. Uso y abuso de la sal en la alimentación humana. Nutr. Clin. Med. IX:189-203. doi:10.7400/ncm.2015.09.3.5030

Bucher, H.C., R.J. Cook, G.H. Guyatt, J.D. Lang, D.J. Cook, R. Hatala, and D.L. Hunt. 1996. Effects of dietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 275:1016-22.

Cabrera, R.B., J.C. Basílico, y A.J. Fusco. 2001. Hongos en quesos artesanales de corrientes (Argentina). FACENA 17:1-4.

Cappuccio, F.P. 2013. Cardiovascular and other effects of salt consumption. Kidney Int. Suppl. 3:312-315. doi:10.1038/kisup.2013.65

Castañeda, R., S. Borbonet, A. Ibarra, J.L. Ipar, V.A. María, B.C. Carmen, N. Purtschert, y R. Alfonso. 2010. Quesos de América del Sur. Editorial Albatros, Buenos Aires, ARG.

Castro, K., M.L. Restrepo, G. Taborda, y G.A. Quintero. 2009. Intensidad de los sabores básicos del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum) en seis estados de madurez. Rev. Bio. Sector Agro. 7:23-28. doi:10.1590/S1692-35612009000100004

Cruz, A.G., J.A.F. Faria, M.A.R. Pollonio, H.M.A. Bolini, R.M.S. Celeghini, D. Granato, and N.P. Shah. 2011. Cheeses with reduced sodium content: effects on functionality, public health bene ts and sensory properties. Trend. Food Sci. Technol. 22:276-291. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2011.02.003

Chávez, A., y A. Romero. 2006. Diagnóstico de las condiciones microbiológicas y sicoquímicas del queso costeño producido en el municipio de Sincé-Sucre (Colombia). Universidad de Sucre, Sincelejo, COL.

D’Elia, L., F. Galletti, and P. Strazzullo. 2014. Dietary salt intake and risk of gastric cancer. Adv. Nutr. Cancer 159:83-95. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38007-5_6

Deepika-Pr, W.M., and S. Kumar-Raks. 2014. Growth and biogenic amine (histamine and tyramine) potential of probiotic Lactobacillus casei in skim milk. Am. J. Food Technol. 9:69-79. doi:10.3923/ajft.2014.69.79

Doyle, M.E., and K.A. Glass. 2010. Sodium reduction and its effect on food safety, food quality, and human health. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety 9:44-56. doi:10.1111/j.1541-4337.2009.00096.x

Drake, S.L., K. Lopetcharat, and M.A. Drake. 2011. Salty taste in dairy foods: can we reduce the salt? J. Dairy Sci. 94:636-645. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3509

Fox, P.F., T.M. Cogan, P.L.H. McSweeney, and T.P. Guinee. 2000. Fundamentals of cheese science. Aspen Pub, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Gaucheron, F. 2005. The minerals of milk. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 45:473-483. doi:10.1051/rnd:2005030.

Gomes, A.P., A.G. Cruz, R.S. Cadena, R.M.S. Celeghini, J.A.F. Faria, H.M.A. Bolini, M.A.R. Pollonio, and D. Granato. 2011. Manufacture of low-sodium Minas fresh cheese: effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride. J. Dairy Sci. 94:2701-2706. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3774

González-Ramírez, E.P. 2010. Caracterización de la composición sico química del queso fresco elaborado artesanalmente en Sehualaca, municipio de Minatitlán, Veracruz. Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, MEX.

Grummer, J., N. Bobowski, M. Karalus, Z. Vickers, and T. Schoenfuss. 2013. Use of potassium chloride and avor enhancers in low sodium cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 96:1401-1418. doi:10.3168/jds.2012-6057

Guinee, T.P. 2004. Salting and the role of salt in cheese. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 57:99-109. doi:10.1111/j.1471- 0307.2004.00145.x

Guinee, T.P. 2007a. How does NaCl affect cheese composition? In: P.L. McSweeney, editor, Cheese problems solved. Woodhead Publishing Limited, and CRC Press LLC, Cambridge, GBR. p. 90-91.

Guinee, T.P. 2007b. How can one make low-sodium cheese? In: P.L. McSweeney, editor, Cheese problems solved. Woodhead Publishing Limited, and CRC Press LLC, Cambridge, GBR. p. 98-99.

Guinee, T.P., and P.F. Fox. 2004. Salt in cheese: physical, chemical and biological aspects. In: P.F. Fox, et al., editors, Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology. Elsevier Academic Press, London, GBR. p. 207-259.

Guinee, T.P. and P.L. McSweeney. 2006. Signi cance of milk fat in cheese. In: P.F. Fox and P.L. McSweeney, editors, Advanced dairy chemistry. Vol. 2: lipids. Springer, New York, NY, USA. p. 377-440.

Guinee, T.P., and B.T. O’Kennedy. 2007. Reducing salt in cheese and dairy spreads. In: F. Angus, editor, Reducing salt in foods. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, GBR. p. 316-357.

Henderson, L., K. Irving, J. Gregory, C.J. Bates, A. Prentice, J. Perks, G. Swan, and M. Farron. 2003. The national diet & nutrition survey: adults aged 19 to 64 years. Vol. 4. Of ce for National Statistics, London, GBR.

Hystead, E., F. Diez-Gonzalez, and T.C. Schoenfuss. 2013. The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 96:6172-6185. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-6675

Intersalt Cooperative Research Group. 1988. Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. BMJ 297:319-28.

IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2010. Strategies to reduce sodium intake in the United States. Institute of Medicine, and The National Academies Press, WA, DC, USA.

Kara, B. 2016. Salt consumption: re ections on public health. J. Comm. Pub. Health Nursing. 2:e112. doi:10.4172/ jcphn.1000e112

Katsiari, M.C., L.P. Voutsinas, E. Alichanidis, and I.G. Roussis. 1997. Reduction of sodium content in feta cheese by partial substitution of NaCl by KCl. Int. Dairy J. 7:465-472. doi:10.1016/s0958-6946(97)00032-0

Katsiari, M.C., E. Alichanidis, L.P. Voutsinas, and I.G. Roussis. 2000. Proteolysis in reduced sodium feta cheese made by partial substitution of NaCl by KCl. Int. Dairy J. 10:635-646. doi:10.1016/S0958- 6946(00)00097-2

Kaur, A., R. Bala, B. Singh, and J. Rehal. 2011. Effect of replacement of sodium chloride with mineral salts on rheological characteristics of wheat our. Am. J. Food Technol. 6:674-684. doi:10.3923/ajft.2011.674.684

Law, B.A. 2010. Cheese-ripening and cheese avour technology. In: B.A. Law, and A.Y. Tamime, editors, Technology of cheesemaking. Blackwell, MA, USA. p. 231-359.

Leiva, J., and H. Figueroa. 2010. Texture of chanco cheese: projection of a sensory map based on multivariate analysis. Cien. Inv. Agr. 37:85-91.

Lemieux, L., and R. Simard. 1991. Bitter avour in dairy products. I. A review of the factors likely to in uence its development, mainly in cheese manufacture. Lait 71:599-636.

Lemieux, L., and R. Simard. 1992. Bitter avour in dairy products. II. A review of bitter peptides from caseins: their formation, isolation and identi cation, structure masking and inhibition. Lait 72:335-385.

Lucey, J.A., and D.S. Horne. 2009. Milk salts: technological signi cance. In: P.L. McSweeney, and P.F. Fox, editors, Advanced dairy chemistry. Vol. 3: lactose, water, salts and minor constituents. Springer, LLC, N.Y., USA. p. 351-389.

Lucey, J.A., M.E. Johnson, and D.S. Horne. 2003. Perspectives on the basis of the rheology and texture properties of cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2725-2743. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73869-7

McCarron, D.A. 1997. Role of adequate dietary calcium intake in the prevention and management of salt-sensitive

hypertension. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65:712S-716S.

McCarron, D.A. 2000. The dietary guideline for sodium: should we shake it up? Yes! Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 71:1013-1019.

McCaughey, S.A., and T.R. Scott. 1998. The taste of sodium. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 22:663-676. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(97)00067-5

McMahon, D.J., M.M. Motawee, and W.R. McManus. 2009.

In uence of brine concentration and temperature on composition, microstructure, and yield of feta cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 92:4169-4179. doi:10.3168/jds.2009-2183.

McMahon, D.J., and C. Oberg. 1998. In uence of fat, moisture and salt on functional properties of Mozzarella cheese. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 53:98.

McMahon, D.J., C.J. Oberg, M.A. Drake, N. Farkye, L.V. Moyes, M.R. Arnold, B. Ganesan, J. Steele, and J.R. Broadbent. 2014. Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 97:4780-4798. doi:10.3168/jds.2014-8071

McSweeney, P.L. 2004a. Biochemistry of cheese ripening: Introduction and overview. In: P.F. Fox, et al., editor, Cheese: chemistry, physics and microbiology. Academic Press, London, GBR. p. 347-360.

McSweeney, P.L.H. 2004b. Biochemistry of cheese ripening. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 57:127-144. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0307.2004.00147.x

Mistry, V.V. 2007. The effects of milk, its ingredients and salt on cheese avor. In: B.C. Weimer, editor, Improving the avour of cheese. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, GBR. p. 239-251.

Mistry, V.V., and K.M. Kasperson. 1988. In uence of salt on the quality of reduced fat cheddar cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 81:1214-1221. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75681-4

Moynihan, A.C., S. Govindasamy-Lucey, J.J. Jaeggi, M.E. Johnson, J.A. Lucey, and P.L. McSweeney. 2013. Effect of camel chymosin on the texture, functionality, and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim mozzarella cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 97:85-96. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-7081

O’Shaughnessy, K.M., and F.E. Karet. 2006. Salt handling and hypertension. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 26:343-65. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.26.061505.111316

Ozturk, M., S. Govindasamy-Lucey, J.J. Jaeggi, M.E. Johnson, and J.A. Lucey. 2013. The in uence of high hydrostatic pressure on regular, reduced, low and no salt added cheddar cheese. Int. Dairy J. 33:175-183. doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2013.01.008

Ozturk, M., S. Govindasamy-Lucey, J.J. Jaeggi, M.E. Johnson, and J.A. Lucey. 2015. Low-sodium cheddar cheese: effect of forti cation of cheese milk with ultra ltration retentate and high-hydrostatic pressure treatment of cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 98:6713-6726. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-9549

Pereira, G.A.P., P.S. Genaro, M.M. Pinheiro, V.L. Szejnfeld, and L.A. Martini. 2009. Dietary calcium – strategies to optimize intake. Rev. Bras. Reumatol. 49:164-180. doi:10.1590/S0482-50042009000200008

Ramírez-Navas, J.S. 2010a. Queso molido nariñense. Tecnol. Láctea Latinoam. 59:56-59.

Ramírez-Navas, J.S. 2010b. Propiedades funcionales de los quesos: énfasis en los quesos de pasta hilada. Rev. RECITEIA 10:70-97.

Ramírez-Navas, J.S., S. González-Sequeira, y N. Sequeira- Cléves. 2011. Queso palmito: originalmente costarricense. Tecnol. Láctea Latinoam. 68:42-49.

Ramírez-Navas, J.S., M. Osorio, y A. Rodríguez. 2010. Quesillo: queso colombiano de pasta hilada. Tecnol. Láctea Latinoam. 60:63-67.

Razavi Rohani, S.M., J. Aliakbarlu, A. Ehsani, and H. Hassanzadazar. 2013. Biogenic amines determination in some traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan province of Iran. Vet. Res. Forum 4:115-8.

Reddy, K.A., and E.H. Marth. 1991. Reducing the sodium content of foods: a review. J. Food Protect. 54:138-150.

Rice, S.L., R.R. Eitenmiller, and P.E. Koehler. 1976. Biologically active amines in food: a review. J. Milk Food Technol. 39:353-358.

Rodríguez, A., y C. Novoa. 1994. Guía para producir quesos colombianos. 1a ed. Banco Ganadero, Santafe de Bogotá, D.C., COL.

Sacks, F.M., L.P. Svetkey, W.M. Vollmer, L.J. Appel, G.A. Bray, D. Harsha, E. Obarzanek, P.R. Conlin, E.R. Miller, D.G. Simons-Morton, N. Karanja, P.H. Lin, M. Aickin, M.M. Most-Windhauser, T.J. Moore, M.A. Proschan, and J.A. Cutler 2001. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) Diet. New. Engl. J. Med. 344:3-10. doi:10.1056/NEJM200101043440101

Saieh, A.C., B.C. Zehnder, C.E.M. Castro, y P. Sanhueza. 2015. Etiquetado nutricional, ¿qué se sabe del contenido de sodio en los alimentos? Rev. Méd. Clín. Las Condes 26:113-118. doi:10.1016/j.rmclc.2014.12.005

Saint-Eve, A., C. Lauverjat, C. Magnan, I. Déléris, and I. Souchon. 2009. Reducing salt and fat content: impact of composition, texture and cognitive interactions on the perception of avoured model cheeses. Food Chem. 116:167-175. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.027

Sheehan, J.J. 2007. How does NaCl affect the microbiology of cheese? In: P.L. McSweeney, editor, Cheese problems solved. Woodhead Publishing Limited, and CRC Press LLC, Cambridge, GBR. p. 96-97.

Shrestha, S., J.A. Grieder, D.J. McMahon, and B.A. Nummer. 2011. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes introduced as a post-aging contaminant during storage of low- salt cheddar cheese at 4, 10, and 21oC. J. Dairy Sci. 94:4329-4335. doi:10.3168/jds.2011-4219

Silla-Santos, M.H. 1996. Biogenic amines: their importance in foods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 29:213-31.

Simatos, D., D. Champion, D. Lorient, C. Loupiac, and G. Roudaut. 2009. Water in dairy products. In: P.L.H. McSweeney, and P.F. Fox, editors, Advanced dairy chemistry. Vol. 3: Lactose, water, salts and minor constituents. Springer, LLC, NY, USA. p. 457-526.

Solís, C., C. Vélez, y J.S. Ramírez-Navas. 2016. Tecnología de membranas: desarrollo histórico. Entre Ciencia e Ingeniería 19:89-98.

Stratton, J.E., R.W. Hutkins, and S.L. Taylor. 1991. Biogenic amines in cheese and other fermented foods: a review. J. Food Protect. 54:460-470.

Susic, D., and E.D. Frohlich. 2012. Salt consumption and cardiovascular, renal, and hypertensive diseases: clinical and mechanistic aspects. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 23:11-6. doi:10.1097/MOL.0b013e32834d9c52

Sutherland, B.J. 2002. Cheese: salting of cheese. In: R. Hubert, editor, Encyclopedia of dairy sciences. Elsevier, Oxford, GBR. p. 293-300.

Temple, N.J. 2011. Population strategies to reduce sodium intake: the right way and the wrong way. Nutrition 27:387. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2010.10.009

Troller, J.A., and J.H. Christian. 1978. Control of aw and moisture. In: J.A. Troller, and J.H.B. Christian, editors, Water activity and food. Academic Press, London, GBR. p. 174-191.

Valsamaki, K., A. Michaelidou, and A. Polychroniadou. 2000. Biogenic amine production in feta cheese. Food Chem. 71:259-266. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00168-0

Vasek, O.M., R. Cabrera, G.J. Coronel, G.S. De Giori, y A.J. Fusco. 2004. Análisis de riesgos en la elaboración de queso artesanal de corrientes. FACENA 20:13-22.

Villegas de Gante, A. 2004. Tecnología quesera. Editorial Trillas S.A. de C.V., MEX.

Walstra, P., T.J. Geurts, A. Noomen, A. Jellema, and M.A. van Boekel. 1999. Dairy technology: principles of milk properties and processes. Marcel Dekker, N.Y, USA.

Walstra, P., J.T.M. Wouters, and T.J. Geurts. 2006. Dairy science and technology. 2nd ed. CRC/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, USA.

Wyness, L.A., J.L. Butriss, and S.A. Stanner. 2011. Reducing the population’s sodium intake: the UK Food Standards Agency’s salt reduction programme. Pub. Health Nutr. 15:254-261. doi:10.1017/S1368980011000966


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.




© 2017 Universidad de Costa Rica. Para ver más detalles sobre la distribución de los artículos en este sitio visite el aviso legal. Este sitio es desarrollado por UCRIndex y Open Journal Systems.