http://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/agromesoAgronomía Mesoamericana ISSN electrónico: 2215-3608

Grasa y ácidos grasos en leche de vacas pastoreando, en cuatro sistemas de producción.

Esperanza Prieto-Manrique, Julio Ernesto Vargas-Sánchez, Joaquín Angulo-Arizala, Liliana Mahecha-Ledesma



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15517/am.v28i1.22816

Resumen


El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la dieta, número de partos y tercio de lactancia sobre el porcentaje de grasa, la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (ALC-c9t11), transvaccénico (ATV-C18:1t11) y otros ácidos grasos (AG) insaturados en la leche de vacas pastoreando en cuatro sistemas de producción. El trabajo se realizó de mayo a diciembre del 2012 en diez ganaderías colombianas, representativas de los sistemas de producción lechería tropical (LT) y doble propósito (DP) con/sin sistema silvopastoril intensivo de leucaena (SSPi). En cada ganadería se tomaron tres muestras individuales de leche, de cinco vacas (día 62 ± 22, día 147 ± 22 y día 227 ± 22 de lactancia), conjuntamente se estimó el consumo de suplemento y de forraje, y se determinaron AG en estos. Cada sistema de producción se analizó independientemente. El contenido de grasa en leche fue afectado por el tercio de lactancia (p<0,05) en LTSSPi y DPSSPi, presentando el primer tercio el menor valor. ALC-c9t11 en la leche varió entre 1,02 a 2,22%, ATV entre 4,40 a 6,50% y el índice de aterogenicidad entre 1,69 a 2,89. La alta participación de la grasa de los suplementos (51 a 84%) en el total de grasa consumida y su composición, llevó a variaciones en el per l de AG de la leche en los sistemas LT, LTSSPi y DP. El número de parto y el tercio de lactancia presentaron menor efecto que la dieta. 


Palabras clave


ácido linoleico conjugado, ácido transvaccénico, lechería tropical, doble propósito, leucaena.

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