Abstract

The National

Institute of Research on Forestry, Agriculture, and Livestock

(INIFAP) of Mexico, with other preceding institutions have

released 221 hybrids and developed varieties during 62 years.

This time INIFAP has worked in maize plant breeding. The

genotypes had specific adaptation to different environmental

conditions. The materials were maize double-crossed and

Open Pollinated Varieties (OPV). Both varieties were

recommended to cover the largest possible areas. The

National Seed Producing Enterprise (Productora Nacional de

Semillas, PRONASE); was founded in 1961. The Seed Law

support PRONASE. Under the new seed law, passed in 1961,

several regulatory entities were established to control crop

research and seed certification, production and marketing.

Officially, all research was controlled by the Ministry of

Agriculture. The creation of PRONASE, with its mandate to

produce and distribute commercial seed of all varieties

developed by INIFAP, created a quasi-monopoly in the seed

industry, which limited and delayed the private sector’s

participation in research and seed production. Eventhough,

privatisation substantially changed the public and private

sector participation in maize seed production and sale. The

Mexican seed industries are relatively limited by the

participation of NGOs and cooperatives in maize seed

production and marketing. Cooperatives and NGOs produce

and market seed, especially of improved OPVs. Public

organisations have dismissed almost completely from seed

production and marketing. Multinational and several national

companies dominate the industry by supporting strong

breeding programs. However, the use of certified seed is

small (26% to 33%). The INIFAP has released improved and

new varieties (30), all of them with good agronomic

characteristics for the different regions of Mexico. INIFAP

has Seed Technology and Seed production. It is necessary to

improve some strategies to supply seed. The farmers can

establish small local seed enterprises.