ía Mesoamericana ISSN electrónico: 2215-3608

Genetic and environmental factors that have an effect in dairy cattle foot injuries in Costa Rica

Marvin Solano-López, Bernardo Vargas-Leitón, Alejandro Saborío-Montero, Derling Pichardo-Matamoros



Foot injuries are one of the most important health problems in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of genetic and environmental factors on the occurrence of foot injuries (FI) in Costa Rica’s dairy cattle. A total of 130 844 cows (417 895 lactations) from 358 herds users of the VAMPP (Veterinary Automated Management and Production control Programme) software were analyzed between 1990 and 2015. The frequency of FI reports was 16.7% and 7.0% per cow and lactation, respectively. The most frequent FI were white line separation (34.3%), laminitis (13.0%), and sole ulcer (12.8%). FI was analyzed by a logistic regression, which determined significant effects of the following factors: zone, herd within zone, calving number, racial type, period and calving month, lactation stage, herd size, and the cow random effect. Cows with the highest propensity to suffer FI events came from the humid premontane forest zone (OR=1.76), were in the fourth calving (OR=1.29), Holstein breed (OR=1.77), calved between 1995 and 1999 (OR=1.73), April (OR=1.20), were in the second month of lactation (OR=22.2), and came from herds with at least 100 cows (OR=1.22). The heritability for FI, estimated by linear and threshold models, were 0.02±0.002 and 0.05±0.004, respectively; and the repeatability estimates were 0.03±0.001 and 0.05, respectively. Cows with FI presented 16.1 additional days open. There is a high impact of this disease in the evaluated dairy herds.


risk factor; animal health; logistic regression; heritability.


Alban, L. 1995. Lameness in Danish dairy cows: frequency and possible risk factors. Prev. Vet. Med. 22:213-225. doi:10.1016/0167-5877(94)00411-B

Baranski, W., T. Janowski, and S. Zdunczyk. 2008. Incidence of reproduction disorders, clinical mastitis and lameness in crossbreed HF×BW cows and Jersey cows maintained in the same conditions. Medycyna. Wet. 64:1201-1204.

Bargai, U. 2000. Lameness in a dairy herd: an epidemiologic model. The compendium of continuing education. Food Anim. Pract. 2:58-67.

Barker, Z., K.A. Leach, H.R. Whay, N.J. Bell, and D.C. Main. 2010. Assessment of lameness prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy herds in England and Wales. J. Dairy Sci. 93:932-941. doi:10.3168/jds.2009-2309

Bergsten, C. 2003. Causes, risk factors, and prevention of Laminitis and related claw lesions. Acta Vet. Scand. 98:157-166. doi:10.1186/1751-0147-44-S1-S157

Bicalho, R.C., V.S. Machado, and L.S. Caixeta. 2009. Licking in dairy cattle: Is it a debilitating disease or debilitated cattle disease? A cross-sectional study of the lameness prevalence and thickness of the digital cushion. J. Dairy Sci. 92:3175-3184. doi: 10.3168/jds.2008-1827

Boettcher, P.J., J.C. Dekkers, L.D. Warnick., and S.J. Wells. 1998. Genetic analysis of clinical lameness in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 81:1148-1156. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75677-2

Cha, E., J.A. Hertl, D. Bar, and Y.T. Gröhn. 2010. The cost of different types of lameness in dairy cows calculated by dynamic programming. Prev. Vet. Med. 97:1-8. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2010.07.011

Chesterton, R.N., D.U. Pfiffer, R.S. Morris, and C.M. Tanner. 1989. Environmental and behavioural factors affecting the prevalence of foot lameness in New Zealand dairy herds - a case control study. N. Z. Vet. J. 37:135-142. doi:10.1080/00480169.1989.35587

Confalonieri, O.E., A.L. Soraci, J.A. Passucci, E.M. Rodríguez, H.M. Becaluba, y M.O. Tapia. 2008. Prevalencia y detección de factores de riesgo de patologías podales y su influencia en la producción láctea en bovinos de la cuenca lechera mar y sierras de Tandil. Analecta Vet. 28:15-20.

Cook, N.B. 2003. Prevalence of lameness among dairy cattle in Wisconsin as a function of housing type and stall surface. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 223:1324-1328. doi:10.2460/javma.2003.223.1324

Espejo, L.A., M.I. Endres, and A.J. Salfer. 2006. Prevalence of lameness in high-yielding Holstein cows housed in freestall stables in Minnesota. J. Dairy Sci. 89:52-58. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72579-6

Flor, E. 2006. Claudicaciones en vacas de rebaños lecheros de la décima región Chile: prevalencia, lesiones y factores de riesgo. Tesis MSc, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, CHI.

Flor, E., y N. Tadich. 2008. Claudicaciones en vacas de rebaños lecheros grandes y pequeños del sur de Chile. Arch. Med. Vet. 40:125-134. doi:10.4067/S0301-732X2008000200003

García-Bracho, D., M. Hahn, D. Pino, I. Vivas, M. Leal, y K. Clerc. 2009. Prevención de enfermedades podales mediante el recorte funcional de la pezuña al momento del secado en vacas lecheras confinadas en el trópico. Rev. Cient. (Maracaibo) 19:147-152.

Gilmour, A., R. Gogel, B. Cullis, S. Welham, and R. Thompson. 2014. ASReml user guide. Release 4.1. VSN International Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, GBR.

Green, L.E., V.J. Hedges, Y.H. Schukken, R.W. Blowey, and A.J. Packington, 2002. The impact of clinical lameness on the milk yield of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2250-2256. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74304-X

Greenough, P. 2009. Laminitis y claudicaciones en bovinos: cómo encarar esta problemática. Inter-Medica S.A.I.C.I., Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, ARG.

Harris, D.J., C.D. Hibburt, G.A. Anderson, P.J. Younis, D.H. Fitspatrick, A.C. Dunn, I.W. Parsons, and N.R. McBeath. 1988. The incidence, cost and factors associated with foot lameness in dairy cattle in south-western Victoria. Aust. Vet. J. 65:171-176. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1988.tb14294.x

Hernandez, J., J.K. Shearer, and D.W. Webb. 2001. Effect of lameness on the calving-to-conception interval in dairy cows. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 218:1611-1614. doi:10.2460/javma.2001.218.1611

Holdridge, L. 1987. Ecología basada en zonas de vida. Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agrícolas, San José, CRC.

IMN (Instituto Meteorológico Nacional). 2008. Clima, variabilidad y cambio climático en Costa Rica. Segunda Comunicación Nacional. INM, San José, CRC.

Jang, W., and J. Lim. 2009. A numerical study of PQL estimation biases in generalized linear mixed models under heterogeneity of random effects. Commun Stat.-Simul. C. 38:692-702. doi:10.1080/03610910802627055

Jubb, T., and J. Malmo.1991. Lesions causing lameness requiring veterinary treatment in pasture-fed dairy cows in east Gippsland. Australian Vet. J. 68:21-24. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.1991.tb09836.x

Kleinbaum, D., and M. Klein. 2010. Logistic regression a self-learning text. Statistics for biology and health. 3rd ed. Springer, NY, USA.

Koenig, S., A.R. Sharifi, H. Wentrot, D. Landmann, M. Eise, and H. Simianer. 2005. Genetic parameters of claw and foot disorders estimated with logistic models. J. Dairy Sci. 88:3316-3325. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)73015-0

Law, G.R., Baxter, P.D., and M.S. Gilthorpe. 2012. Selection bias in epidemiological studies. En: T. Yu-Kan, and D.C. Greewood, editors, Modern methods for epidemiology. Springer Science & Business Media, Dordrecht, HOL. p. 57-91.

Leonard, F.C., J. O’Connell, and K. O’Farrell. 1994. Effect of different housing conditions on behaviour and foot lesions in Friesian heifers. Vet. Rec. 134:490-494. doi:10.1136/vr.134.19.490

Luna-Tortós, C., y H. Cedeño-Guerra. 2015. Prevalencia e impacto de las enfermedades metabólicas en hatos lecheros de Costa Rica. Presentado en: XXI Congreso Nacional Lechero. 20 oct-21 oct., San José, CRC. Presentación 4.

Margerison, J., and C. López. 2011. Survey of individual cow records to identify factors associated with lameness in three farms in New Zealand. Presented at: 16th Symposium and 8th Conference on lameness in ruminants. 28 Feb.-3 Mar., Rotorua, NZL.

Molina, L.R., A.U. Carvalho, E.J. Facury-Filho, P.M. Ferreira, e V.C.P. Ferreira. 1999. Prevalência e classificação das afecções podais em vacas lactantes na bacia leiteira de Belo Horizonte, Brasil. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. 29:905-909. doi:10.1590/S0102-09351999000200004

Olivieri, G.O., y B. Rutter. 2003. Afecciones podales en bovinos. Monografía final del curso Nutrición en la Intensificación. Sitio Argentino de Producción Animal, ARG. (consultado 09 jun. 2015).

Parker-Gaddis, K.L., J.B. Cole, J.S. Clay, and C. Maltecca. 2012. Incidence validation and relationship analysis of producer-recorded health event data from on-farm computer systems in the United States. J. Dairy Sci. 95:5422-5435. doi: 10.3168/jds.2012-5572

Pérez, E., M.T. Baayen, E. Capella, and H. Barkema. 1989. Development of a livestock information system for Costa Rica. In: H. Kuil et al., editors, Livestock production and diseases in the tropics. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference. Institute for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht, HOL. p. 221-224.

Pinsent, P. 1981. The management and husbandry aspects of foot lameness in cattle. Bovine Pract. 16:61-64.

Ranjbar, S., A. Rabiee, A. Gunn, and J.K. House. 2016. Identifying risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 99:7495-7505. doi:10.3168/jds.2016-11142

Rodríguez, G., and N. Goldman. 2001. Improved estimation procedures for multilevel models with binary response: A case study. J. R. Statist. Soc. A. 164:339-355. doi:10.1111/1467-985X.00206

Rowlands, G., and S. Lucey. 1986. Changes in milk yield in dairy cows associated with metabolic and reproductive disease and lameness. Prev. Vet. Med. 4:205-222. doi:10.1016/0167-5877(86)90024-3

Rutter, B. 2009. Importancia del pie bovino en el tambo. Academia Nacional de Agronomía y Veterinaria, Buenos Aires, ARG.

Sarjokari, K., K. Kaustell, T. Hurme, T. Kivinen, A. Peltoniemi, H. Saloniemi, and P. Rajala-Schultz. 2013. Prevalence and risk factors for lameness in insulated free stall barns in Finland. Liv. Sci. 156:44-52. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2013.06.010

SAS. 2009. The SAS system for Windows. Release 9.4. SAS Inst., Cary, NC, USA.

Shearer, J.K., S.R. Van-Amstel, and A. González. 2005. Manual of foot care in cattle. Hoard’s Dairyman Books, WI, USA.

Solano, L., H.W. Barkema, E.A. Pajor, S. Mason, S.J. LeBlanc, J.C. Zaffino-Heyerhoff, C.G.R. Nash, D.B. Haley, E. Vasseur, D. Pellerin, J. Rushen, A.M. de-Passillé, and K. Orsel. 2015. Prevalence of lameness and associated risk factors in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns. J. Dairy Sci. 98:6978-6991. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-9652

Tranter, W.P., and R.S. Morris. 1991. A case study of lameness in three dairy herds. N. Z. Vet. J. 39:88-96. doi:10.1080/00480169.1991.35668

VanRaden, P.M., M.E. Tooker, J.B. Cole, G.R. Wiggans, and J.H. Megonigal. 2007. Genetic evaluations for mixed-breed populations. J. Dairy Sci. 90:2434-2441. doi:10.3168/jds.2006-704

Vargas, B., y J. Ulloa. 2008. Relación entre curvas de crecimiento y parámetros reproductivos en grupos raciales lecheros de distintas zonas agroecológicas de Costa Rica. Liv. Res. Rural Dev. 20(8) Art. 122.

Vargas-Leitón, B., y M. Cuevas-Abrego. 2009. Modelo estocástico para estimación de valores económicos de rasgos productivos y funcionales en ganado lechero. Agrociencia 43:881-893.

Vargas-Leitón, B., O. Solís-Guzmán, F. Saénz-Segura, y H. León-Hidalgo. 2013. Caracterización y clasificación de hatos lecheros en Costa Rica mediante análisis multivariado. Agron. Mesoam. 24:257-275. doi:10.15517/am.v24i2.12525

Vermunt, J.J., and T.J. Parkinson. 2002. Claw lameness in dairy cattle: New Zealand based research. N. Z. Vet. J. 50:88-89. doi:10.1080/00480169.2002.36276

Weber, A., E. Stamer, W. Junge, and G. Thaller. 2013. Genetic parameters for lameness and claw and leg diseases in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 96:3310-3318. doi:10.3168/jds.2012-6261

Well, S.J., A.M. Trent, W.E. Marsh, P.G. McGovern, and R.A. Robinson. 1993. Individual cow risk factors for clinical lameness in lactating dairy cows. Prev. Vet. Med. 17:95-109. doi:10.1016/0167-5877(93)90059-3

Zwald, N.R., K.A. Weigel, Y.M. Chang, R.D. Welper, and J.S. Clay. 2004. Genetic selection for health traits using producerrecorded data. I. Incidence rates, heritability estimates, and sire breeding values. J. Dairy Sci. 87:4287-4294. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73573-0


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© 2017 Universidad de Costa Rica. Para ver más detalles sobre la distribución de los artículos en este sitio visite el aviso legal. Este sitio es desarrollado por UCRIndex y Open Journal Systems. ¿Desea cosechar nuestros metadatos? dirección OAI-PMH: