Agronomy Mesoamerican 2022-06-24T20:45:26-06:00 Nancy León Ulate Open Journal Systems <p>Agronomy Mesoamerican journal is a continued publication with shutdowns in January, May and September. Edited in the Universidad de Costa Rica, its objective is to disseminate scientific information in Spanish or English language, through the publication of articles, short communications, technical notes and literature reviews, related with food and agriculture sciences from anywhere in the world, emphasized in tropical and subtropical zones, especially from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>URL OAI-PMH</strong>&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) value chain in East Java, Indonesia 2022-06-24T20:45:26-06:00 Sri Tjondro Winarno Wiwik Sri Harijani <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span></strong>&nbsp;Coffee plantations are one of the growing agriculture sub-sectors and a high coffee production should be based on proper processing and marketing.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Objective.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To analyze the updates of products, processes, functions, and upgrading of the robusta coffee value chain in East Java.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>This study was conducted in the Robusta coffee plantations in the Bondowoso, Jember, Lumajang, Pasuruan, Malang, and Ngawi districts in East Java, Indonesia, between October 2019 and March 2020. The quota sampling technique was used, followed by surveys and interviews. The number of respondents was 120 people who were actors in the coffee value chain, such as farmers, coffee cherry collectors, coffee cherry grinders, green bean grinders, and consumers.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.&nbsp;</span></strong>The results showed that product, function, and channel upgrading had a significant effect on the coffee value chain, but the upgrading process did not significantly affect it in several regions on East Java.<span class="CharOverride-2">&nbsp;<strong>Conclusions.</strong></span>&nbsp;There is a need for innovation to enhance the coffee value chain in order to deliver future benefits to all stakeholders in this market.</p> 2022-06-24T12:09:11-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Energy analysis in dairies of the Argentina Pampa´s region. Part 1. Energy flows 2022-06-20T20:45:20-06:00 Gustavo Daniel Gimenez Bruno Idelfonso Novaira Pablo Roberto Marini <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.&nbsp;</span></strong>The heterogeneity of agricultural systems makes it difficult to assess their sustainability, since there are no tools that can be applied to most cases, with indicators that are easily understood by the stakeholders in the field. One possible tool for use is energy analysis.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Objectives.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To contextualize the heterogeneity of primary milk production models, based on energy flowcharts.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>A retrospective data from nine commercial milk production establishments in the Argentine Pampas Region, during the period from July 2014 to June 2015 were worked with. These were differentiated according to variables such as animal stocking rate and level of feed supplementation. The case study methodology was used, with energy analysis for each case, configuring flowcharts for each one, and quantifying inputs, outputs, and energy use efficiency.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The existence of three systems was determined: mixed dairy-agricultural with fattening, mixed dairy-agricultural, and pure dairy with fattening. The mixed systems are important, due to the energy flow provided by agriculture to compensate for the significant energy loss of the milk and meat subsystems; however, the purely livestock systems turned out to be more efficient in energy use, due to lower energy consumption and forage production.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>The energy analysis was useful to characterize the heterogeneity between systems through the construction of flow charts. It also allowed evaluating social and environmental aspects, which in traditional analyzes are excluded; but which, given the volume of energy flow they provide, motivate the need to include them in accounting due to their importance for the dairy process and due to the close link between nature and society, associated with the man-ecosystem complex.</p> 2022-06-20T09:02:21-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physical and chemical characterization of residual palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) biomass in the Peruvian Amazon 2022-06-20T20:45:21-06:00 Jessica Yanina Neyra-Vasquez Grober Panduro-Pisco Edgar Juan Díaz-Zúñiga Jose Iannacone <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The oil palm (<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Elaeis guineensis</span>&nbsp;</em>Jacq.) in the Peruvian Amazon has an installed production area of 72,861 ha, whose fruit processing generates solid residues such as the stalk and dry mesocarp.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To determine the physicochemical characteristics of the residual biomass, stalk, and fruit fiber from palm oil extraction in the Peruvian Amazon, for its potential use in the elaboration of biodegradable materials.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>During August to October 2020, 19.39 t/day of stalk and 13.05 t/day of oil palm fruit fiber were collected in Pucallpa, Neshuya District, Peru. Solubility analyzes in hot water and moisture were determined using the American standard test (American Society for Testing and Materials). The solubility in soda was obtained using the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry standard method. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and refractive index (RI) detector were used to determine cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The physical properties of moisture (%) and solubility in soda (%) showed no differences between stalk and fiber. Both stalk and the fiber showed solubility in hot water, with values lower than 17 %. The chemical properties of the fiber were higher than those in the stalk, based on the percentage of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>The physical and chemical results of oil palm stalk and fruit fiber would allow the development of appropriate technological processes for their conversion to biological products.</p> 2022-06-20T08:46:49-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of different ways of application of Quitomax® in the growth of corn 2022-06-14T20:45:14-06:00 Yaisys Blanco-Valdes Omar Enrique Cartaya-Rubio Meylen Espina-Nápoles <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Corn (<em><span class="CharOverride-4">Zea mays&nbsp;</span></em>L.) is a highly-consumed cereal in the world, which requires adequate fertilization to cover its nutritional requirements. Quitomax® is a biostimulant that has been successfully used to stimulate the yield of different crops.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To evaluate the effectiveness of the application of Quitomax® on the growth of the improved Francisco variety corn crop.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>The study was carried out in experimental areas of the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (INCA) during 2018 and 2019, on a typical Ferralitic Red Leached eutric soil, with a randomized block experimental design with seven treatments and four replications. The Quitomax® treatments applied were: imbibition of the seeds for one hour at the concentrations of 0, 5 and 1 g L<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>, foliar spray at the concentrations of 0, 5 and 1 g L<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>, combination of both forms of application and concentrations, and a control. Yield and some of its components were evaluated.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.&nbsp;</span></strong>The best results were obtained in the treatment that combined seed imbibition and foliar spraying (1 g L<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>) (T6) of Quitomax®, with a yield of 12 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>, plant height (A.P) of 2.12 m, mean diameter of the ear (DMM), and diameter of the stem (D. T) of 50.74 mm and 30.62 mm, respectively, height of the upper ear (AMS) of 1.13 cm, number of grains per row (NGH) and per ear (NGM) of 32.27 and 455.33, respectively, 17.53 cm ear length (LM), one hundred grain mass (M100S) of 38.90 g and 175.46 g total grain mass (MTSM). This treatment improved the benefit/cost ratio, and showed higher profits, although it was the most expensive.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>Seed and foliar application of Quitomax® was effective in increasing the yield and its components in corn.</p> 2022-06-14T15:11:19-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes with resistance to BGYMV in Cuba 2022-06-23T09:57:12-06:00 Arianna Morales-Soto Alexis Lamz-Piedra Lidia Chang-Sidorchuk Yamila Martínez-Zubiaur <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span></strong>&nbsp;The Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV) is one of the factors that limit the production of beans (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Phaseolus vulgaris</span></em>&nbsp;L.) in Cuba. Genetic improvement for resistance to this virus is one of the most effective strategies for disease control.<span class="CharOverride-2">&nbsp;<strong>Objective.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To select common bean genotypes with resistance to BGYMV and grain yield stability.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>Twenty-two bean genotypes (sixteen advanced lines donated by the Agricultural School of Zamorano, Honduras, the cultivar commercial ‘Cuba Cueto 25-9N’, the resistant and susceptible controls ‘Delicia 364’ and ‘Velasco Largo’, respectively). The presence of the&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5">bgm</span>-1 gene, which confers resistance to BGYMV, was then identified from the presence of the SCAR SR2 marker.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Results.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The evaluation of the reaction in the field allowed the identification of nineteen genotypes with a resistant response to the natural infection of BGYMV. Sixteen common bean genotypes were identified with the presence of the SCAR SR2 marker and seventeen genotypes that showed stable grain yield behavior during the evaluation seasons, which may be useful for the genetic improvement of bean crops.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusion.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The results allowed the identification of nineteen genotypes with resistance to BGYMV. The seventeen BGYMV-resistant with the SCAR SR2 marker and stable genotypes, could be included in the bean germplasm bank and as parents in crossing programs, as well as in regional yield trials in other bean-growing environments.</p> 2022-06-14T11:32:36-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutrient injection: an efficient technique to increase plantain (Musa AAB) crop yield 2022-06-14T09:11:48-06:00 Elías Alexander Silva-Arero EASILVAA@OUTLOOK.COM William Andrés Cardona Martha Marina Bolaños-Benavides Humberto Morales-Osorno <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.&nbsp;</span></strong>There are alternative fertilization methods such as fertilizer injection to the pseudostem that present greater efficiency than traditional edaphic fertilization.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.</span>&nbsp;</strong>To evaluate the effect of soil fertilization and nutrient injection on morphological variables and bunch weight of the plantain in soils of variable fertility.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>Two experiments were established in the municipalities of Viota and Chaguaní, Cundinamarca, Colombia, in 2018. A completely randomized design in bifactorial arrangement was used. The two experiments were: Experiment A: two locations and two types of fertilization (traditional and soil chemistry) and Experiment B: two locations and four nutritive solutions (one based on amino acids and another one with nutrients, both in two proportions) and a control. The response variables were: bunch weight, days from flowering to harvest, diameter, and external length of the central finger.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span></strong>&nbsp;Organic edaphic fertilization in Chaguaní soil had no effect on bunch weight compared to chemical sources. In Viotá, soil chemistry fertilization increased bunch weight compared to the use of traditional soil fertilization. This differential response is explained by the fact that in Chaguaní the soil had a higher exchange capacity, nutrient content, and organic carbon. The plants planted in Chaguaní produced heavier bunches (21.6 kg) compared to Viotá (19.0 kg), but in the last one the fingers of the bunch were shorter. The nutrient injection in both locations increased the plantain crop yield compared to the control without injection.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;</span>A low dose of fertilizer in the high fertility soil had a similar effect on plantain production recorded in the low fertility soil that received a high dose of fertilizer. The injection of nutritive solutions should be validated as a complementary alternative to the traditional soil fertilization.</p> 2022-06-07T13:31:41-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## High-resolution melting curve analysis to identify sex in papaya (Carica papaya L.) 2022-05-28T18:44:34-06:00 Walter Barrantes-Santamaría Elodia M. Sánchez-Barrantes <p><span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The sexing of papaya plants (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Carica papaya</span></em>&nbsp;L.) in commercial plantations is usually done visually once the plant emits the flower. There are also biotechnological procedures such as the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), used to detect the sex of papaya at early ages, however, both methods mentioned above present a series of drawbacks, among them false positives.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>Objective.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To identify sex in papaya seedlings using SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) markers with a high precision.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Materials and Methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>The research was carried out at the Fabio Baudrit Moreno Agricultural Experiment Station of the Universidad de Costa Rica, during the months of February to October, 2020. Eight SNP markers were evaluated in papaya plants of known sex using the HRMA (acronym in English: High Resolution Melting Analysis) technique, the best one was chosen and reevaluated in two populations of the genetic improvement program of this crop, then the sexed plants were sown in the field to compare the molecular sexing with the current field sexing.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Results.&nbsp;</span></strong>Several of the SNP markers evaluated were polymorphic and could be used to identify sex in papaya, however, the marker CpSERK_HRM_34704 was the one that most closely matched the selection criteria.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>Conclusion.</strong>&nbsp;</span>In the case of the papaya hybrid Pococi and related breeding populations, the marker CpSERK_HRM_34704 showed 100 % precision between the molecular sexing of the seedlings in the nursery using the HRM technique and the current sex of the same plants planted in the field.</p> 2022-05-26T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pesticide residues in blackberries (Rubus glaucus Benth.) in the Valle del Cauca, Colombia 2022-04-29T20:43:50-06:00 Yorley Beatriz Lagos-Alvarez Lizette Maritza Díaz-Ramírez Jenny Marcela Melo-Velasco Jhon Jairo Hurtado Bermudez <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The blackberry (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Rubus glaucus</span></em>) is a fruit very susceptible to contamination by pesticide residues during its production stage. For this reason, the analysis of pesticide residues in this fruit is important to promote processes that contribute to ensure its quality and safety.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.</span>&nbsp;</strong>To analyze the pesticide residues in blackberry (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Rubus glaucus</span></em>) fruits obtained from production areas and wholesale markets in Valle del Cauca.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>During the second semester of 2020 and the first semester of 2021, fifteen samples from two wholesale markets and fifteen samples of three production areas of Valle del Cauca were analyzed through a multi-residue analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with a mass selective detector (GC - MSD) and liquid chromatography with mass-to-mass spectrometry (LC-MS / MS). For this, the QuEChERS method was used and, in addition, an analysis of total dithiocarbamates by carbon disulfide (CS2) generation was performed.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Eight active ingredients were found in the production areas, of which four of them exceeded the maximum residue limits: chlorpyrifos, carbendazim, mandipropamid, and difenoconazole. In the market places, fourteen active ingredients were determined, which five exceeded the maximum residue limits: carbendazim, iprodione, tebuconazole, dimethomorph, and difenoconazole.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusion.</span>&nbsp;</strong>These findings reflect the high residual pesticide residues in ready-to-eat blackberries and suggest the need for follow-up processes to help ensure the safety of the fruit throughout the production chain.</p> 2022-04-29T10:48:29-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Climatic and microclimatic conditions of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Jacks. ex Andrews) production systems in Mexico 2022-04-29T20:43:50-06:00 Paulo César Parada-Molina Araceli Pérez-Silva Carlos Roberto Cerdán-Cabrera Antony Soto-Enrique <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Vanilla is grown in agroecosystems under varying management intensities, with particular environmental characteristics that could be unfavorable for the orchid. Atmospheric conditions are important due to climate change.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Objective.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To characterize the climatic and microclimatic conditions of three vanilla (<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Vanilla planifolia</span></em>&nbsp;Jacks. ex Andrews) production systems.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>The study was carried out in three vanilla production systems located in Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico. Three management intensities were used: a) acahual, under the shade of various tree species; (b) monoculture, interspersed with an arboreal species; and (c) shade mesh (with artificial shade). One year of monitoring was carried out (December-2020 to November-2021), which included four climatic seasons, two cold and two warm. Climatic variables (region) and microclimatic (plot) variables were measured: temperature (T), relative humidity (HR), and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, only in the microclimate), with automated stations; in addition, the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was calculated.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Results.</strong>&nbsp;</span>On a daily scale, climatic conditions as microclimatic in the acahual were more favorable for vanilla cultivation in the four seasons evaluated; the monoculture and the shade mesh experienced humidity and temperature conditions outside the agroclimatic requirements of vanilla, mainly in March-May (MAM), with Tmax &gt;32 °C and RH &lt;80 %. On an hourly scale, the warmest and driest conditions were in monoculture and shade mesh in December-February (DEF) and MAM; while in June-August (JJA) and September-November (SON) in acahual and shade mesh; VPD (&gt;2 kPa) indicated longer periods of water stress in these systems.<strong>&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>The monoculture and the shade mesh presented unfavorable humidity and temperature conditions for vanilla, with more periods of water stress. The acahual presented the most convenient climatic and microclimatic conditions for the cultivation of vanilla.</p> 2022-04-29T10:03:48-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antioxidant capacity and proximal analysis of Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal and Chenopodium quinoa Willdenow nectar-based 2022-05-02T06:56:35-06:00 Rosel Quispe-Herrera Yolanda Paredes Valverde Jhon Rony Roque Huamani <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Several studies have shown that the fruit of cocona and quinoa seeds have good levels of nutritional and functional compounds, as well as great versatility for food preparation.<strong>&nbsp;</strong><span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Objective.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To determine the taste attribute preference, the physicochemical profile and the antioxidant capacity of the nutraceutical drink nectar based on<em>&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-8">S. sessiliflorum</span></em>&nbsp;Dunal (cocona) enriched with&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-8">Chenopodium quinoa</span></em>&nbsp;Willdenow (quinoa).&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>A nectar was prepared with cocona pulp and quinoa seeds variety INIA 415 Pansakalla, under the Peruvian Technical Standard (NTP 203.110 2009) with fruits collected between February and March 2019, in the town center of Santa Rosa, Inambari district, Tambopata province, department of Madre de Dios, Peru. A sensory panel of forty people evaluated the flavor attribute, the proximal composition was determined by standardized methods and antioxidant capacity by ABTS methodology.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Results.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The most preferred nectar contained 73 % cocona pulp and 7 % cooked quinoa, the addition of quinoa increased the macronutrient content by 42 %, as well as the antioxidant capacity by 20 %. The cooked quinoa grains presented double the antioxidant capacity compared to cocona fruit. A low-calorie beverage was obtained (49.3 kcal/100 g) and enriched with bioactive compounds of high antioxidant capacity.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The formulation with the highest acceptance according to the flavor attribute, physicochemical profile, and antioxidant capacity of the beverage was the one containing a proportion of 73 % cocona pulp and 7 % cooked quinoa grains, a beverage that met the regulatory requirements and could contribute to maintain and improve health.</p> 2022-04-29T08:02:01-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphoagronomic variability in specimens of wild papaya (Carica cubensis Solms) in Cuba 2022-04-26T20:43:44-06:00 Jesús Rodríguez-Cabello Maria Esther González-Vega <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.&nbsp;</span></strong>Papaya is the third most important tropical fruit worldwide. However, in the wild variety, endemic to Cuba, there is no evidence of studies for its conservation, cultivation or breeding programs.<span class="CharOverride-2">&nbsp;<strong>Objective.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To evaluate wild papaya specimens from the Almendares-Vento basin, with the use of morphoagronomic descriptors, to contribute to the conservation and value its productive potential and characters of interest for the genetic improvement of C. papaya.<strong>&nbsp;</strong><span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The research was developed between 2008 and 2018,<span class="CharOverride-3">&nbsp;<em>in situ</em>&nbsp;</span>in the Almendares-Vento Basin, Mayambeque, and traditional growing conditions, at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agricolas, San Jose of Las Lajas, Cuba. The evaluations were carried out using sixteen morphoagronomic descriptors recommended for the species. In 2016, seeds from eleven plants were collected for individual<span class="CharOverride-3">&nbsp;<em>ex situ</em></span>&nbsp;evaluation. The qualitative descriptors were described using photographic images and for the quantitative descriptors&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-3">in situ</span></em>, descriptive statistics were calculated for each of the variables evaluated. For the&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-3">ex situ</span></em>&nbsp;evaluations, a principal component analysis and a biplot were performed. For each descriptor, 95 % confidence intervals were calculated.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span></strong>&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-3">In situ</span></em>, the wild papaya population was made up of specimens that lived isolated and distant from each other. Under traditional cultivation conditions, they showed morphoagronomic variability in the number of fruits and their dimensions, °Brix and acidity. In addition to their ecological value, the aforementioned characters revealed potential qualities in the identification of promising genotypes, related to the market and use in crop improvement.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusion.</span></strong>&nbsp;The fruits showed physical and bromatological properties that make wild papaya a promising phytogenetic resource for use in crop improvement and as a production alternative for production under traditional growing conditions.</p> 2022-04-26T09:38:21-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Compositional quality of the silage of three cultivars of corn (Zea mays) from the Colombian high tropics 2022-04-26T20:43:45-06:00 Edgar A. Mancipe-Muñoz Javier Castillo-Sierra Juan de J. Vargas-Martínez Yesid Avellaneda-Avellaneda <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span></strong>&nbsp;The elaboration of high-quality corn-silage is a strategy to improve the efficiency of ruminant feeding systems.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Objective.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To evaluate the effect of cob proportion and sealing time on the compositional quality of silage of three maize cultivars in the Colombian high tropic, harvested in the reproductive phase of milky-pasty grain.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.</span></strong>&nbsp;The experiment was conducted in 2017 in Mosquera, Colombia, with the cultivars Simijaca, Medellín, and Pionner. Experiment 1, four different proportions of cob were generated in the silage. Experiment 2, the biomass was ensiled at 0, 8 or 16 hours of wilted. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), starch, and neutral detergent (NDF) and acid detergent (ADF) fibers were determined. The dynamic of pH decrease was evaluated. The effect of cob proportion and wilting time on the DM, OM, and NDF digestibility was determined only in the Simijaca cultivar. Compositional quality and pH dynamics were analyzed using a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement, while digestibility was analyzed using a completely randomized design.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.&nbsp;</span></strong>The Medellín cultivar showed lower cob proportion and starch concentration (11.9 %) (p&lt;0.05) and a higher NDF content (51.7 %) (p&lt;0.05). Greater cob content increased starch concentration, energy, and digestibility (p&lt;0.05), and reduced (p&lt;0.05) the final pH value (3.69). Wilted time increased DM, NDF (p&lt;0.05) and final pH value and rate of pH decline, but did not change DM, OM, and NDF digestibility.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusion.</span></strong>&nbsp;Using corn silage with more than 66 % of cob and rapidly sealing the biomass of the Simijaca and Pioneer cultivars improved the fermentation conditions and compositional quality.</p> 2022-04-26T08:20:54-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Molecular identification of microorganisms in agricultural, ornamental and forest crops in Costa Rica, 2009-2018. Part 1 2022-04-26T20:43:46-06:00 Mónica Blanco-Meneses <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Introduction.</span></strong>&nbsp;The Laboratory of Molecular Techniques applied to Phytoprotection (LTM), Crop Protection Research Center, Universidad de Costa Rica; receives agricultural, ornamental, and forest crops for the identification of microorganisms using molecular techniques.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Objective.</span></strong>&nbsp;To identify pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and protozoa in agricultural, ornamental, and forest crops in Costa Rica by molecular methods.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>Between 2009 and 2018, plant parts (root, stem, leaves, fruits) and other materials such as water, substrate, and soil were received. A total of 805 isolates were obtained for identification of microorganisms by DNA extraction techniques, end-time and real-time PCR and sequencing using molecular markers.<span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>&nbsp;Results.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The sequencing allowed the identification of a total of 154 species of fungi, 6 oomycetes, and 1 protozoa. Among the fungi identified, genera such as<em>&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-6">Fusarium</span></em>&nbsp;predominated with fourteen different species, followed by&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Colletotrichum</span></em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-6"><em>Aspergillus</em>&nbsp;</span>with eleven species identified for each one. In the oomycetes, species of the genus<span class="CharOverride-6">&nbsp;<em>Phytophthora&nbsp;</em></span>prevailed, and within the protozoa the genus&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Plasmodiophora</span></em>. In addition, the scientific references supporting the presence of the microorganisms identified in each particular crop have been included in the information.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>Conclusion.</strong>&nbsp;</span>It was possible to identify by molecular techniques pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes and protozoa species isolated from different agricultural, ornamental and forest crops in Costa Rica.&nbsp;</p> 2022-04-26T08:00:57-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Importance of genetic resources of pineapple (Ananas comosus [L.] Merr. var. comosus) in Colombia 2022-04-20T19:38:23-06:00 Germán Andrés Aguilera-Arango Carol Liliana Puentes-Díaz Yacenia Morillo-Coronado <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1"><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Pineapple (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Ananas comosus</span></em>&nbsp;[L.] Merr. Var. comosus) represents one of the productive systems with the highest participation in the fruit and horticultural sector in Colombia. Plant genetic resources are the biological basis of world food security and are also the essential raw material for the genetic improvement of crops. In Colombia, the planting of an improved pineapple variety is a great problem, because it displaces the use of native cultivars, which are culturally rooted in terms of production and consumption in each location. This problem could be solved through the knowledge, characterization, conservation, and sustainable use of genetic resources, which are a source of genes of interest and that could be used to start a breeding program for this species.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.</span>&nbsp;</strong>To recognize the importance of genetic resources as a strategy to implement a breeding program for pineapple in Colombia.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Development.&nbsp;</span></strong>Plant genetic resources constitute the basis of food security; hence their knowledge, conservation, and sustainable use are necessary to guarantee agricultural production and meet the growing environmental challenges and climate change. Pineapple genetic resources in Colombia could be exploited, since there are different local varieties of pineapple, which constitute a gene pool with genes and characteristics of interest that could be used in breeding programs to obtain new cultivars to meet current demands and supply national and export markets.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.</span></strong>&nbsp;Knowing the genetic variability in pineapple genetic resources would allow planning conservation strategies, their sustainable use in agricultural systems and in crop breeding programs. It is necessary to incorporate molecular biology techniques to accelerate genetic improvement of pineapple.</p> 2022-04-20T14:02:31-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rural agro-industrial enterprises diversity: typologies of panela production in Huila, Colombia 2022-04-08T19:38:02-06:00 Sonia Mercedes Polo-Murcia Gonzalo Alfredo Rodríguez-Borray Ginna Natalia Cruz-Castiblanco José Luis Tauta-Muñoz Bellanid Huertas-Carranza <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1"><span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Typologies can be used as a mechanism to address the heterogeneity of agricultural systems. Panela, or non-centrifuged cane sugar, is a traditional sweetener of great economic and cultural importance in Colombia, it generates 236,000 direct jobs per year and is produced in 47 % of the country’s municipalities.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To identify typologies of agro-industrial production units (UPA) of panela based on technical and socioeconomic characteristics in the department of Huila, Colombia.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>The multivariate statistical technique of mixed data factor analysis (AFDM) was used with data from 94 UPAs, taken from a representative cross-sectional survey of the year 2019 carried out within the framework of this study. The survey provided information on production cycle, socioeconomic, and environmental management management of by-products.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.&nbsp;</span></strong>Three differentiated types of UPA were identified: type 1(6 UPA- 6.38 %): composed of units oriented to productive diversification and technological transition; type 2 (63 UPA-67.02 %): composed of units with traditional management of the cultivation, processing and use of by-products; and type 3 (25 UPA-26,6 %): composed of units specialized in the production of panela, with greater technification in cultivation and processing of sugarcane.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Different heterogeneous groups of panela agro-industrial production units were identified in the department of Huila, Colombia, where a traditional small-scale operation model is developed. The empirical exploration of this research made it possible to delineate the potential for technology adoption in the identified groups. Technology transfer programs should consider the technical and socioeconomic characteristics of the UPAs.</p> 2022-04-08T12:16:53-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Estimation of soil moisture through multiple linear regressions in Llano Brenes, Costa Rica 2022-04-08T19:38:03-06:00 Teresa Palominos-Rizzo Mario Villatoro-Sánchez Alfredo Alvarado-Hernández Víctor Cortés-Granados Darwin Paguada-Pérez <p class="Texto ParaOverride-2"><strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Soil moisture is a very important variable in the water supply for agriculture and it is its main resource. However, its field measurement usually has limitations, so its prediction is necessary for various agricultural planning and research activities.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To predict daily soil moisture at the crop scale from meteorological information through multiple linear regression models.<span class="CharOverride-4">&nbsp;<strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The study was carried out in Llano Brenes, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors were installed and soil moisture information was recorded every twenty minutes from November 2018 to December 2019. The soil was classified at the taxonomic level as Lithic Ustorthents, in a farm with coffee cultivation in production. Undisturbed soil samples were taken for TDR calibration and a temporal stability analysis was performed. The first model (RLM1) was a multiple linear regression with meteorological variables, in the second model (RLM2) in addition to the meteorological variables, the precipitation was separated into sub-periods which were introduced as dummy variables, while the third model (PCA) consisted of a main component analysis and a linear regression model.<strong>&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-4">Results.&nbsp;</span></strong>The RLM2 (R<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">2</span></sup>&nbsp;= 0.838) and PCA (R<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">2</span></sup>&nbsp;= 0.823) models performed better than the RLM1 model (R<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">2</span></sup>&nbsp;= 0.540). However, the RLM2 model was considered more useful due to its simplicity and the fact that it presented the best goodness-of-fit indicators.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Conclusion.&nbsp;</span></strong>The linear regression models with meteorological variables allowed estimating soil moisture, because it tends to follow seasonal patterns and variations in precipitation, as observed in the RLM2 with the separation of sub-periods.</p> 2022-04-08T09:44:26-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficacy of pre-emergent herbicides on the control of Oryza latifolia Desv. (broadleaf rice) 2022-03-31T09:48:32-06:00 Grettel Picado-Arroyo Franklin Herrera-Murillo <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1"><span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;</span><em><span class="CharOverride-5">Oryza latifolia</span></em>&nbsp;is a wild species in commercial rice plantations, its control is difficult given the limited availability of effective and selective herbicides for commercial rice.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.</span>&nbsp;</strong>To identify pre-emergent herbicides to control&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-5">O. latifolia&nbsp;</span></em>and to estimate the waiting time before planting commercial rice.<span class="CharOverride-2">&nbsp;<strong>Materials and methods.&nbsp;</strong></span>Two experiments were conducted from April to October 2019 at the Estación Experimental Agrícola Fabio Baudrit Moreno, Alajuela, Costa Rica. Plastic pots of 3 L capacity, filled with clay soil, were used. In each pot, 30 seeds of&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5"><em>O. latifolia</em>&nbsp;</span>were sown. In the first experiment, oxyfluorfen (480, 720, and 960 g a.i. ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>), oxadiargil (300, 400, and 500 g a.i. ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>), pretilachlor (1000, 1500, and 2000 g a.i. ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>), atrazine (1500, 2000, and 2500 g a.i. ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>), acetochlor (1500, 2000, and 2500 g a.i. ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>), and a control without herbicide were evaluated. In the second experiment, oxyfluorfen (480 g a.i. ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>) and atrazine (2000 g a.i. ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>) applied at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks before sowing the Palmar 18 rice variety were evaluated. An unrestricted randomized design with five replications was used in both experiments. The control and dry aerial biomass of&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5"><em>O. latifolia</em>&nbsp;</span>and Palmar 18 variety were evaluated.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.&nbsp;</span></strong>Oxyfluorfen in the doses evaluated showed the highest efficacy with 100 % control of&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-5">O. latifolia</span></em>, followed by atrazine at 2000 g a.i. ha<span class="CharOverride-4"><sup>-1</sup>&nbsp;</span>with 80 %; however, both herbicides caused mild to moderate damage to the rice variety when applied between 0 and 4 weeks before planting.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusion.</span></strong>&nbsp;Oxyfluorfen was the most effective pre-emergent herbicide for the control of&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-5">O. latifolia</span></em>, but the waiting time to sow the Palmar 18 variety was not accurately determined.</p> 2022-03-29T14:45:53-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Technical efficiency of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in the Caribbean Region of Colombia 2022-03-29T19:37:48-06:00 Antonio Maria Martínez-Reina Carina Cecilia Cordero-Cordero Adriana Patricia Tofiño-Rivera <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1"><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction</span>.</strong> Within the production systems of the peasant economy in the Caribbean Region, the cowpea (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Vigna unguiculata</span></em>&nbsp;L. Walp) is important given its nutritional quality. There are few studies that inquire about the allocation of production factors by the producer.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To analyze and determine the efficiency of cowpea production in the Caribbean producing regions of Colombia.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>Between 2018 and 2020, the study was conducted using the information applied to 31 productive units in the producing regions of the departments of Cordoba, La Guajira, and Cesar in a randomly selected sample using the simple random sampling method. A structured survey was applied to the sample on data on inputs used in production such as labor, seed, fertilizer. Descriptive statistics, dispersion measures, correlation, and regression analysis were calculated, and for the purpose of evaluating the efficiency and contribution of each factor to production, a Cobb-Douglas econometric model was formulated.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span></strong>&nbsp;Information was generated on the contribution of each factor makes to production, where seed and fertilizer stand out as those with the greatest contribution.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The farmer was efficient because there was a direct relationship between the increase in inputs and the quantities produced, in addition, the technology gap is narrow of the order of 8 %, with yields on an increasing scale due to the direct relationship between the increase in inputs and the increase in product.</p> 2022-03-29T14:41:19-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biomass and bromatology of African Stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst) with five regrowth stages 2022-03-29T19:37:49-06:00 Adriel Jacoc Ferrufino-Suárez David Mora-Valverde Luis Alonso Villalobos-Villalobos <p><span class="CharOverride-9"><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Establishing the optimal harvest stage of African Stargrass (<em><span class="CharOverride-10">Cynodon nlemfuensis</span></em>&nbsp;Vanderyst) is essential to obtain high nutritional quality biomass and maximum productivity.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-9">Objective.</span></strong>&nbsp;To evaluate the nutrient production of African Stargrass with five regrowth periods by integrating biomass and nutritional data to establish harvest periods in cut-and-carry systems.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-9">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>The study was carried out from August through December 2018 at the Dairy Cattle Experimental Station Alfredo Volio Mata (EEAVM), Ochomogo, Cartago. The effect of five regrowth periods (treatments = 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days) on the green and dry biomass production, nutritional quality, and effective nutrients production per hectare of African Stargrass was evaluated. The total biomass was measured for each plot, and the nutritional quality was obtained through the contents of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-10">in vitro</span>&nbsp;dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). The analysis of total effective nutrients production per hectare was performed by integrating nutritional components and biomass production.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-9">Results.&nbsp;</span></strong>Fresh and dry biomass increased with increasing regrowth stage. The fresh biomass showed differences greater than 4000.00 kg fresh matter ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-7">-1</span></sup>&nbsp;per cycle between the highest and lowest treatments. Dry matter yield at 35 days’ regrowth turned out 10 times higher than 7 days’. The crude protein content was greater in treatments with less days of regrowth. No significant differences were found in dry matter, fiber, and digestibility among treatments.<span class="CharOverride-9">&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion.&nbsp;</strong></span>The greatest supply of effective nutrients from African Stargrass harvested at 35 days evidenced the importance of integrating biomass and nutritional quality for pasture management under cut-and-carry systems.</p> 2022-03-29T14:18:16-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) a crop with productive potential: technological development and prospects in Colombia 2022-03-16T19:37:29-06:00 Javier Orlando Orduz-Rodríguez Eleonora Rodríguez-Polanco <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.&nbsp;</span></strong>The world demand for cashew (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Anacardium occidentale</span></em>&nbsp;L.) nuts has increased at more than 7 % per year, while production keeps on a rate of 6 % per year. This global market status makes the cashew nuts and its derivatives, as a promising agricultural alternative in Colombia, where about 270 t of kernels are imported per year.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To present the basic aspects of cashew crop, and to show the current technological development and future prospects in Colombia.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Development.&nbsp;</span></strong>Approximately 60 % of the area cultivated with cashew in Colombia presents average yields lower than 100 kg ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>&nbsp;of walnut, considered low compared to 1000 kg ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>&nbsp;or even higher that can be obtained with a technician management of the crop, a situation due to the lack of knowledge and scarce application of technologies for intensive production by producers. However, there is currently a technological offer of cashew clones with outstanding productive and quality characteristics, as well as technical recommendations for agronomic management of the cultivation and post-harvest of the walnut, which can be disseminated and implemented to address the main limitations of the crop, to improve cashew production in a profitable and environmentally sustainable way.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>The sustainability of current commercial cashew plantations and the increase of planting areas in Colombia require the validation and adoption of innovative technologies in integrated crop and postharvest management that could have an impact on the cashew crop in the country, by presenting alternatives to improve its productive behavior, as well as profitability for producers.</p> 2022-03-16T12:47:42-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bud rot evaluation in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) using multispectral imaging, Costa Rica 2022-03-16T19:37:30-06:00 Bryan Alemán-Montes Carlos Henríquez-Henríquez Kenneth Largaespada-Zelaya Tatiana Ramírez-Rodríguez <p><span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The use of remote sensing to identify the different plant health conditions, and its relationship with crop yield, constitutes a very important tool in the implementation of Precision Agriculture.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To relate the phytosanitary status, obtained by experts through visual assessment, of oil palm (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Elaeis guineensis</span>&nbsp;</em>Jacq.) plants affected by bud rot (BR), with the vegetation indices calculated with multispectral images obtained with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The study was conducted in a four-hectare plantation with oil palm three-year-old, owned by CoopeCalifornia R.L., located in Parrita, Costa Rica. Four visual assessments of the BR state were conducted from December 2014 to February 2017. With these assessments, the spatial-temporal evaluation of the incidence of BR during 26 months was obtained. In the last evaluation, a flight was performed with a UAV carrying a Parrot Sequoia multispectral camera, with which vegetation indexes were calculated and then related to the BR status of the oil palm plants.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>A high spatial and temporal variability of BR was found during all visual evaluations performed. A strong relationship was also found between data from field assessments and data generated from remote sensing. The Simple Ratio (SR) vegetation index showed significant differences between plants classified as healthy and plants classified with BR, with degrees 2 and 3 of severity.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Field data, obtained through expert judgment, can be linked to high spatial resolution multispectral information to identify BR in commercial oil palm plantations.</p> 2022-03-16T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Fertilizer for Wellness Program and the Bean Market in Mexico 2022-02-24T19:36:48-06:00 Mercedes Borja-Bravo José Alberto García-Salazar <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The Fertilizer for Wellness Program was implemented in Mexico since 2019 and seeks to increase the productivity of staple crops, including beans.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.</span>&nbsp;</strong>To measure the effects of the Fertilizer for Welfare Program on the bean market in Mexico, the economic benefit that it will generate in society and its contribution to the food self-sufficiency of the grain.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>A spatial equilibrium model that considered the bean producing and consuming regions in Mexico was formulated and validated, information in the average year 2017-2019 was used.<span class="CharOverride-2">&nbsp;<strong>Results.</strong></span>&nbsp;The results indicated that the national bean production and consumption would increase by 228 and 79 thousand tons if the Fertilizer for Wellness Program benefited all bean producers; the above would mean a 22.1 % increase in production that would allow lowering imports to zero. The Fertilizer for Wellness Program has promoted greater bean production and has contributed to food self-sufficiency by eliminating imports, in addition to generate economic benefits for society, as producer and consumer surpluses would increase by USD$ 429 million and USD$ 226 million.<span class="CharOverride-2">&nbsp;<strong>Conclusion.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The Fertilizer for Wellness Program favored production growth and encouraged bean consumption in Mexico and discouraged bean imports; this action increased bean productivity and contributed to food self-sufficiency.</p> 2022-02-24T15:58:30-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutritional composition, content of bioactive compounds, and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of selected Costa Rican fruits 2022-02-21T19:36:45-06:00 María Laura Montero Carolina Rojas-Garbanzo Jessie Usaga Ana M. Pérez <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The consumption of fruits and vegetables inversely correlates with the incidence of degenerative diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancer, and cataracts associated with aging, due to the action of bioactive compounds including vitamin C, polyphenols, and carotenoids.<strong>&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.</span></strong>&nbsp;To evaluate the nutritional profile of eleven fruits grown in Costa Rica.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>This study was carried out at the National Center for Food Science and Technology of the Universidad de Costa Rica, in 2010. The content of total dietary fiber, total polyphenols, reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), total carotenoids expressed as µg β-carotene, and the hydrophilic capacity for oxygen radical absorbance (H-ORAC<span class="CharOverride-5">FL</span>) of eleven traditional or underutilized fruits were determined: banana (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Musa&nbsp;</span>AAA</em> subgroup Cavendish cv. ‘Grand Naine’), high altitude tropical blackberry (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Rubus adenotrichos</span></em>&nbsp;cv. ‘wine with red thorns’), melon (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Cucumis melo</span></em>&nbsp;cv. ‘Veracruz’), fig (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Ficus carica</span></em>&nbsp;cv. ‘Brown-Turkey’), mango (<em>Mangifera indica</em>&nbsp;cv. ‘Tommy Atkins’), papaya (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Carica papaya</span></em>&nbsp;hybrid ‘Pococí’), pejibaye (<span class="CharOverride-6"><em>Bactris gasipaes</em>&nbsp;</span>HBK), pineapple (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Ananas comosus</span></em>&nbsp;cv hybrid MD-2 ‘Gold’), quince (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Cydonia oblonga</span></em>), jocote (<span class="CharOverride-6"><em>Spondias purpurea</em>&nbsp;</span>cv. Tronador), and red tree tomato (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Solanum betaceum</span></em>). The fruits were collected in different locations in San Jose, Cartago, Alajuela, Guanacaste and Limon.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span></strong>&nbsp;Six of the fruits studied presented dietary fiber contents between 4.2 and 6.6 g 100 g<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>. The highland tropical blackberry presented the highest content of total phenolic compounds (538 ± 97 mg GAE 100 g<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>) and the highest antioxidant activity (62.1 ± 4.0 μmol Trolox equivalents g<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>) and the cooked pejibaye presented the highest content of carotenoids (72 ± 4 µg β-caroteno g<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-</span>¹</sup>).&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusion.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The values of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds in the eleven fruits grown in Costa Rica represent valuable nutritional characteristics given the associated health benefits supported by clinical and epidemiological studies.</p> 2022-02-21T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Control of Sclerotium cepivorum and growth promotion in garlic (Allium sativum) whit antagonist microorganisms 2022-05-03T07:11:36-06:00 Yimmy Alexander Zapata-Narváez Magda Rocio Gómez-Marroquín <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1"><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>White rot produced by&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5"><em>Sclerotium cepivorum</em>&nbsp;</span>causes losses greater than 50 % in garlic crops, the main control alternative is the application of chemical fungicides with limited efficacy, it is necessary to integrate alternatives that contribute to the development of disease management strategies.<span class="CharOverride-2">&nbsp;<strong>Objective.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To evaluate the efficacy of antagonistic microorganisms applied individually and as a mixture against<span class="CharOverride-5">&nbsp;<em>S. cepivorum</em></span><em>&nbsp;</em>in garlic.&nbsp;<strong>Materials and methods.&nbsp;</strong><span class="CharOverride-2">&nbsp;</span>This research was carried out under controlled conditions at the Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria (AGROSAVIA), during 2019. The soil was artificially infested with sclerotia (10 sclerotia/g soil). The efficacy of the individual use and in mixtures under different drench applications frequencies of three antagonists&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Trichoderma koningiopsis</span></em>,&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Trichoderma asperellum</span></em>, and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Bacillus amyloliquefaciens</span></em>, strains Th003, Th034, and Bs006, respectively, in the control of&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5"><em>S. cepivorum</em>&nbsp;</span>in garlic and in the promotion of plant growth expressed as root, bulb, and foliar dry weight was evaluated.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Results.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The highest efficacy, with 65 % in disease control was obtained when applying Th003 at sowing and 15 das and with 56 % when applying the mixtures of Th003 + Th034 at sowing, Th003 + Th034 at sowing, 15, 30, and 45 das, and Th003 + Bs006 at sowing, 15 and 30 das, while Tebuconazole presented an efficacy of 35 %.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusion.&nbsp;</span></strong>The application of antagonists individually or in mixtures at different frequencies reduced mortality due to white rot in garlic. A positive effect on garlic plants growth was observed with the application of Th003 + Bs006 strains at sowing, 15 and 30 das, Th003 at sowing, Th003 at sowing and 15 dad, and Th034 + Bs006 at sowing, with higher values of dry weight with respect to the control.</p> 2022-02-18T15:50:04-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Benefits of the inoculated canavalia intercropped with mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium in Coffea canephora 2022-03-09T09:29:37-06:00 Carlos Alberto Bustamante-González Yusdel Ferrás-Negrín Ionel Hernández-Forte Ramón Rivera-Espinosa <p><span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Coffee growing requires technologies that increase yields, fertilizer use efficiency , promote the use of local sources of nutrients and take advantage of the benefits of microorganisms.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objetive.&nbsp;</span></strong>To establish the feasibility of the intercropping canavalia inoculated with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on coffee trees and their relationship with nitrogen fertilization.<span class="CharOverride-2">&nbsp;<strong>Materials and methods.&nbsp;</strong></span>The study was carried out between 2008 and 2012 at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agro-Forestales , in Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. A randomized block design with factorial arrangement was applied. Five nitrogen fertilization systems were studied, with and without inoculated canavalia in a pruned coffee plantation cultivated in Cambisol. The canavalia plants were maintained in the coffee tree lanes during the rainy season, in growth cycles of 90 at 120 days, cutting, mulching and subsequent sowing. The canavalia seeds were coated with mycorrhizae and Rhizobium inoculants and sown at 25 cm x 25 cm in the rows of the coffee trees. The biomass, legume growth, coffee yield and agronomic efficiency of nitrogen fertilization were evaluated.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Results.</strong>&nbsp;</span>With the canavalia inoculated with Rhizobium and mycorrhizal fungi, 205.9 kg of N ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>&nbsp;were incorporated in three years and coffee yield increased by 17 % and 16 % in the first and second year, respectively. With the N<span class="CharOverride-5">4&nbsp;</span>+ canavalia fertilization system, an average annual yield of 1.69 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>&nbsp;of gold coffee was obtained.<strong>&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>The intercropping of canavalia with the coffee tree increased the efficiency of nitrogen fertilization. The intercropping of canavalia inoculated with Rhizobium and mycorrhizae in the management of&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-6"><em>C. canephora</em>&nbsp;</span>during the first two years from the low pruning of the coffee tree.</p> 2022-02-15T00:00:00-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## New bacteria genera associated with rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Cuba promote the crop growth 2022-02-07T19:36:20-06:00 Ionel Hernández-Forte Reneé Pérez-Pérez Cecilia Beatríz Taulé-Gregorio Elena Fabiano-González Federico Battistoni-Urrutia Maria Caridad Nápoles-García <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span></strong>&nbsp;The rice cultivar INCA LP-7 is one of the eleven principal cultivars in Cuba due to their high yield potential, salinity tolerance, and pathogens resistance. However, there are not reports about the isolation, identification, and characterization of bacteria associated to this cultivar that promote its growth.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To select promising bacteria from the rhizosphere of the INCA LP-7 rice cultivar to promote the crop growth.<span class="CharOverride-2">&nbsp;<strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The investigation was carried out in 2015 and 2016 at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Cuba and Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable, Uruguay. The 16SrNA gene of bacteria associated with the INCA LP-7 rice cultivar was isolated and identified by sequencing. Characterization was performed as plant growth promoting bacteria and the effect of bacterial inoculation on rice growth was studied.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Eleven rizopheric bacteria were isolated from rice plants of the INCA LP-7cultivar. A phylogenetic analysis showed that for the first time in Cuba&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Pantoea</span></em>,&nbsp;<em>Acinetobacter</em>, and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Mitsuaria&nbsp;</span></em>genera were reported associated with rice.&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Rhizobium&nbsp;</span></em>and&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5"><em>Enterobacter</em>&nbsp;</span>genera were also informed as rhizospheric bacteria of INCA LP-7 rice cultivar. Some isolates solubilize inorganic phosphates and potassium, produce siderophores and indolic compound, had exo-celulase and protease activity and formed biofilm. The inoculation of isolates belonging to&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5">Pantoea genus&nbsp;</span>produced an increase in height, root length, and biomass of rice plants under greenhouse conditions.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.<em>&nbsp;</em></span></strong><em><span class="CharOverride-5">Pantoea</span></em>&nbsp;sp. GG1 and&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5"><em>Pantoea</em>&nbsp;</span>sp. GG2 were the most promising strains for the inoculation of the INCA LP-7 rice cultivar. This is the first report in Cuba that focuses on the characterization of the bacterial microbiota part associated to Cuban rice cultivar INCA LP-7 and reports bacteria of the&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5">Pantoea</span>&nbsp;genus as crop growth promoters.</p> 2022-02-07T13:22:56-06:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##