Agronomía Mesoamericana 2023-01-16T08:02:59-06:00 Nancy León Ulate Open Journal Systems <p>Agronomía Mesoamericana journal is a continued publication with shutdowns in January, May and September. Edited in the Universidad de Costa Rica, its objective is to disseminate scientific information in Spanish or English language, through the publication of articles, short communications, technical notes and literature reviews, related with food and agriculture sciences from anywhere in the world, emphasized in tropical and subtropical zones, especially from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>URL OAI-PMH</strong>&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> 50th anniversary of the Center for Research in Grains and Seeds (CIGRAS): History and contributions in research, teaching, and social work 2022-09-16T00:50:07-06:00 María Viñas Víctor M. Jiménez Luis Barboza-Barquero 2022-09-06T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 María Viñas, Víctor M. Jiménez, Luis Barboza-Barquero Semen analysis in precision farming in the 21st century 2022-08-24T11:07:21-06:00 Carles Soler Anthony Valverde <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Introduction. </span></strong>Assisted reproduction of animals traces its origins in the domestication of livestock species useful to humans. The consequent artificial selection processes allowed the development of biotechnological techniques that contributed to the improvement of animal production capacities.<span class="CharOverride-4"> <strong>Objective. </strong></span>To contextualize the seminal analysis in precision farming in the 21st century. <span class="CharOverride-4"><strong>Development.</strong> </span>The visualization of spermatozoa under the microscope can be considered as the first step in the advent of reproductive biotechnology and the basis for the development of assisted reproductive techniques. With the improvement of microscopy methods, it was possible to characterize male gametes, which meant a significant advance in artificial insemination technology. The turning point marked by the development of sperm conservation techniques implied a substantive change in the development of these technologies in livestock species, either with cryopreserved or refrigerated semen. These methods are of high value in the case of threatened species since germplasm banks can be created for genetic conservation and rescue of species at risk of extinction. Semen analysis has been developed alongside with assisted reproduction techniques and today it is considered a relevant technique in animal reproduction biotechnology, which has been perfected through the advancement of science and technology, optical physics, and computing.<span class="CharOverride-4"><strong> Conclusion.</strong> </span>Seminal analysis has undergone a paradigm shift by rejecting obsolete techniques of subjective evaluation of semen quality and adopting objective methods of semen evaluation, through the analysis of large volumes of data and motility, kinematics, morphometrics, morphological, and DNA fragmentation variables, which allow a better characterization of the ejaculates of breeders in artificial insemination centers.</p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Carles Soler, Anthony Valverde Physico-chemical and sensory characterization of two rice (Oryza sativa) varieties during aging process 2022-10-25T10:36:51-06:00 Adriana Araya-Morice Ana Laura Mora-Norori Elba Cubero-Castillo Alvaro Azofeifa Yorleny Araya-Quesada <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Once harvested, paddy rice is stored in aerated silos for temperature control, which is known as rice aging. During aging, physicochemical, and physiological changes occur in the rice grain, these changes affect its culinary quality.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To determine the effect of aging time on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of two rice varieties.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Materials and methods.</span>&nbsp;</strong>This study was carried out in Agrifood Science Faculty Laboratories of the Universidad de Costa Rica, between September 2018 and March 2019. The two rice varieties studied were grown in Osa, Puntarenas. The first cv. Lazarroz FL, indica type, and the second cv. UCR-168-10, aromatic type were stored for 4.5 months. During storage, total starch, resistant starch, amylose, moisture, protein, was determined, and sensory attributes were evaluated with a trained sensory panel.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The two rice varieties studied don’t show significant differences during 4.5 months of storage in moisture, total starch, and resistant starch. Amylose content showed variation without a clear trend. Protein content was reduced during aging until 2,5 months of storage. According to the sensory test, attributes such as integral flavor and stickiness did not show significant differences throughout the study, while the remaining parameters did, either over time or between varieties. Cooked rice appearance showed an improvement up to 2,5 months aging for the two varieties. Whiteness of rice increased for both varieties during aging.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Conclusion.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Storing rice for 2,5 months achieved the desired changes in protein and sensory attributes for the rice varieties evaluated.</p> 2022-10-25T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Adriana Araya-Morice, Ana Laura Mora-Norori, Elba Cubero-Castillo, Alvaro Azofeifa, Yorleny Araya-Quesada Quantification of the percentage of total broken grain in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by digital image analysis 2022-08-11T15:26:43-06:00 Luis Arley Zúñiga Picado Stefanny Campos Boza Juan Roberto Mora Chaves Luis Barboza-Barquero <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-7">Introduction. </span></strong>Digital image analysis (DIA) can be used to evaluate the quality parameters of rice grains, such as the percentage of whole grain. <strong><span class="CharOverride-7">Objective. </span></strong>To quantify percentage of total broken grain by means of digital image analysis (DIA) applied to the quantification of rice (<em><span class="CharOverride-8">Oryza sativa</span></em> L.) quality. <strong><span class="CharOverride-7">Materials and methods. </span></strong>The present work was developed in facilities of the Centro para Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Costa Rica, in 2021. The work was carried out with commercial rice samples. A sample plate was developed to facilitate the arrangement of the grains and to acquire the digital images. The length parameters established in the technical regulation of Costa Rica RTCR 202:1998 were used to quantify the percentages of small broken, broken grains, and whole grains, which were quantified conventionally and by means of digital images. The DIA included the segmentation and binarization process of the objects (small broken, broken grains, and whole grain) to quantify their areas and catalog the digitally identified elements in weight values. <span class="CharOverride-7"><strong>Results.</strong> </span>It was possible to quantified the percentage of small broken and broken grain with DIA. The correlation between the variables quantified by DIA and those evaluated conventionally was greater than 0.93 for the small broken property and 0.98 for broken grain. Conventional analysis requires 1 to 2 hours to determine the percentage of total broken grain and other quality properties in each rice sample. The digital analysis requires 7 to 23 minutes per sample plate to analyze all the properties evaluated (small broken and broken grain).<strong> </strong><span class="CharOverride-7"><strong>Conclusions.</strong> </span>The digital analysis method applied allowed to determine the total broken grain properties in samples composed of hundreds of grains.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Luis Arley Zúñiga Picado, Stefanny Campos Boza, Juan Roberto Mora Chaves, Luis Barboza-Barquero Morphology and viability test optimization in seeds of Passiflora spp. from Costa Rica 2022-10-15T09:03:53-06:00 Elizabeth Vega-Corrales Verónica Campos-Sánchez Andrés Antonio Monge-Vargas Sonia Bertsch-Hernández Ester Vargas-Ramírez <p><span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;</span>In Costa Rica there are 51 native species of passion fruit plants that have commercial potential due to their phytochemical characteristics. In&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-6"><em>Passiflora</em>&nbsp;</span>the seminal characteristics can be used to taxonomically classify the genus species. The identification of plant material and the development of methodologies that enable quality assessment is essential for propagation, production, and conservation.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To characterize&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Passiflora biflora&nbsp;</span></em>and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Passiflora adenopoda</span></em>&nbsp;seeds based on their morphology and to optimize the protocol for determining their viability by means of the tetrazolium test.<span class="CharOverride-5">&nbsp;<strong>Materials and methods.</strong></span><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Morphological characterization and viability trials were carried out in 2022, at the Centro de Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS), Universidad de Costa Rica. Twelve external morphological characters and the internal structures of&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. biflora</span>&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. adenopoda</span></em>&nbsp;were characterized. For the optimization of the tetrazolium test protocol, the effect of two types of cutting (longitudinal and angular), two concentrations of tetrazolium salt (0.5 % and 1 %), three temperatures (30, 35, and 40 ºC), and four incubation times (3, 6, 12, and 24 h) were assessed.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Results.&nbsp;</span></strong>The morphological characters evaluated allowed the seeds to be classified as&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. biflora</span>&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. adenopoda</span></em>. By using 1 % tetrazolium salt, a longitudinal cut, a temperature of 40 ºC, and an incubation time of 3 h, similar viability percentage was obtained (90 % in<span class="CharOverride-6">&nbsp;<em>P. biflora</em></span><em>&nbsp;</em>and 91 % in&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. adenopoda</span></em>), and a staining of the same quality, as that obtained with the international standardized method.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>The seminal characteristics assessed allowed the classification of the analyzed seeds as<span class="CharOverride-6">&nbsp;<em>P. biflora</em></span>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. adenopoda</span></em>. In addition, the tetrazolium test protocol was optimized by reducing the incubation time from 24 to 3 hours.</p> 2022-10-14T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Elizabeth Vega-Corrales, Verónica Campos-Sánchez, Andrés Antonio Monge-Vargas, Sonia Bertsch-Hernández, Ester Vargas-Ramírez Physiological seed quality of carrot (Daucus carota L.) assessed by vigor testing 2022-10-20T09:04:29-06:00 Edgar Jesús Vindas Quesada Andrés Antonio Monge Vargas Carolina Porras Martínez Luis Barboza Barquero <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction</span>.</strong> In carrot cultivation direct sowing is practiced because the seedling cannot resist the stress of transplanting. It is essential to use seeds that germinate in a maximum of seven days and uniformly. Seeds vigor is associated with yield performance in the field and, at the international level there are different test to measure it. However, in carrot, the methodologies are still scarce and are not standardized.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.</span>&nbsp;</strong>To determine the physiological quality in seeds of two varieties of carrot (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Daucus carota</span></em>&nbsp;L.) by mean of vigor tests.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.</span>&nbsp;</strong>This research was carried out at the Centro para Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS) of the Universidad de Costa Rica in 2018. Seeds of Bangor and Triunfo varieties with moisture percentages of 7 %, 10 %, and 13 % were used. The vigor tests used were the following: radicle protrusion, first germination count (seven days), accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, and the germination analysis by digital images. Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed between the variables studied.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Significant correlation coefficients (Pearson’s r) were observed for electrical conductivity with variables obtained from the image analysis: t10 (r=0.83), t50 (r=0.87), and the area under the curve (r=-0.72). Trough the electrical conductivity test, it was determined that the Bangor lot had greater vigor than the Triunfo lot (Tukey, p≤0.05).&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>The analysis of digital images and the electrical conductivity tests allowed measuring the vigor in seed lots of Bangor and Triunfo varieties, and complementing them with germination results to determine their physiological quality.</p> 2022-10-19T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Edgar Jesús Vindas Quesada, Andrés Antonio Monge Vargas, Carolina Porras Martínez, Luis Barboza Barquero Phenological observations, oil characteristics and equilibrium isotherm of Myroxylon peruiferum seeds (Fabaceae) 2022-09-26T08:55:27-06:00 Diego Aguilar-Sandí Guillermo Solano-Quesada Ester Vargas-Ramírez Andrés Antonio Monge-Vargas Andrea Irías-Mata Luis Barboza-Barquero <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1"><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span></strong> Phenological information on <em><span class="CharOverride-5">Myroxylon peruiferum</span></em> in Costa Rica is scarce. In addition, the characteristics of the oil and the equilibrium isotherm are unknown. The knowledge generated in this field will allow proper seed management and generate oil prospecting options. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objectives.</span></strong> (i) To document a flowering and fruiting event of a single <em><span class="CharOverride-5">M. peruiferum </span></em>tree. (ii) To determine the characteristics of the fruit and seed oil. (iii) To generate a water absorption/de-absorption isotherm. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> </span>From March to May 2021, the flowering and fruiting of <em><span class="CharOverride-5">M. peruiferum</span></em> tree was documented in Montes de Oca, San Jose, Costa Rica. Mature fruits were collected between June and July. The oil content of fruits and seeds was characterized separately. A water absorption/de-absorption isotherm was elaborated, with which the fit of the Cromarty equation was tested. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results. </span></strong>The flowering, fruiting, and dispersal period lasted five months. These phenophases occurred simultaneously. Oleic acid was the main fatty acid. There was a significant correlation between the percentages of fatty acid in the fruit and seed oil, and between the contents of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oil is yellow, moderately intense, and luminous. As relative humidity increased, seed moisture content also increased. The linear relationship between the actual values and those obtained using the Cromarty equation was R<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">2</span></sup>= 0.93. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Conclusion.</strong> </span>Mature fruit can be harvested between March and August, and be used for germination, propagation and oil prospecting studies. Once the relationship between relative humidity and seed moisture content is established, studies on seed storage and viability loss can be developed.</p> 2022-11-29T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Diego Aguilar-Sandí, Guillermo Solano-Quesada, Ester Vargas-Ramírez, Andrés Antonio Monge-Vargas, Andrea Irías-Mata, Luis Barboza-Barquero Fast seed histology protocols: Benzene derivatives-free vs xylene-dependent 2022-10-06T09:03:37-06:00 M. Benavides-Acevedo J. Torres-Segura <p><span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Seeds are complex structures that allow the biological and crop propagation of plants. Seed histology can be used for teaching, researching, and for pathological diagnostic. Histology protocols are commonly divided into 5 different stages: fixation, processing, cutting, staining, and mounting. Xylene is a dangerous reagent used during the processing, staining, and mounting of histological specimens that can contaminate the environment and is toxic for users.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Objective.</span>&nbsp;</strong>To compare two new protocols for seed histology accelerated with microwave, tested on seeds of economic importance species.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>The experiments were done between January and May of 2022 at the Centro de Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS) of the Universidad de Costa Rica. The compared protocols were: a benzene derivatives-free (BDF) and a xylene-dependent (XD). Seeds of&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-4"><em>Carica papaya</em>&nbsp;</span>L. (Caricaceae) var. Pococí,&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-4">Coffea arabica</span></em>&nbsp;L. (Rubiaceae) var. Obata,&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-4">Glycine max</span></em>&nbsp;L. (Fabaceae) var. CIGRAS-06,&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-4">Phaseolus vulgaris</span></em>&nbsp;L. (Fabaceae) var. Tayni,&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-4"><em>Oryza sativa</em>&nbsp;</span>L. (Poaceae) var. Lazarroz FL, and<span class="CharOverride-4">&nbsp;<em>Zea mays</em></span>&nbsp;L. (Poaceae) var. EJN-2 were used. Three technical replicates of five seeds of each species were tested with the XD and BDF protocols, on different days each replicate.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The photomicrographs obtained with both protocols showed that the samples maintained the morphology integrity of embryo, endosperm or cotyledons, and other seed structures. BDF and XD protocols produced seed histology slides and microphotographs. PAS-Coomassie Blue staining made a good differentiation of carbohydrates and proteins. Fastness of both protocols is a benefit compared with other protocols for plant histology that can take several days or even weeks.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Conclusions.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The BDF and XD protocols were suitable for seed histology analysis of bean, coffee, maize, papaya, and soybean, slides were obtained in less than 5 hours. BDF protocol is the first for plant tissue processing that does not use benzene derivatives and that uses paraffin as embedding medium.</p> 2022-10-05T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 M. Benavides-Acevedo, J. Torres-Segura Nutritional contribution and sensory profile of panettone enriched with almonds, raisins and dehydrated blueberries 2022-10-25T08:56:39-06:00 Grisel Violeta Chiroque Velásquez <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1" lang="es-ES"><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Introduction.</span></strong> In Peru, panettone, a brioche-type bread with raisins and candied fruit, is a product of high consumption throughout the year. Its preparation requires a large amount of flour, fat, and sugar, so its excessive consumption contributes to obesity problems and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Objective.</span> </strong>To determine the nutritional contribution and evaluate the level of acceptance of panettone enriched with almonds, raisins, and dehydrated blueberries, as a healthy alternative, without modifying the characteristic organoleptic attributes recognized by its consumers. <span class="CharOverride-6"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> </span>In the physicochemical laboratory of the Universidad de Barranca (Lima, Peru), in December 2019, three types of panettone were formulated replacing the traditional filling with almonds, blond raisins, and dehydrated blueberries for a final composition of 40, 45, and 50 % w/w. They were subjected to sensory evaluation by ranking preference tests to qualify the attributes (color, smell, taste, and texture) and acceptance test with hedonic scale, to qualify the acceptance of the final product. The most acceptable product underwent physicochemical analysis to determine the nutritional contribution of the proposal. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Results.</span> </strong>The formulation with the highest acceptance was 45 % filler, even though the differences between treatments were not significant (p&gt;0.05) The macronutrient content was similar to what is offered in the market (p&gt;0.05). In relation to micronutrients, a contribution of 8 g of unsaturated fatty acids, 0.36, 5.8, 4.9, 33.3, 9.3, and 109 mg of vitamins B2, B3, E, iron, zinc, and calcium respectively, was observed per 100g g portion. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Conclusion.</span> </strong>Almonds, blond raisins, and dried cranberries improved the nutritional density of panettone, without significantly affecting the organoleptic characteristics of the product.</p> 2023-02-02T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Grisel Violeta Chiroque Velásquez Vitamin E profile in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds grown and commercialized in Costa Rica 2022-09-27T09:03:12-06:00 Valery Conejo-López Luis Barboza-Barquero Álvaro Azofeifa-Delgado Ester Vargas-Ramírez Andrea Irías-Mata <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.&nbsp;</span></strong>Rice (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Oryza sativa</span></em>&nbsp;L.) is one of the most consumed cereals worldwide, the indica and japonica subspecies are the most cultivated. The vitamin E present in rice has a high antioxidant activity that contributes to extend the longevity of its seeds. Its quantification allows to know the nutritional contribution of this vitamin.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Objective.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To analyze the vitamin E profile in seeds of indica (registered commercial, aromatic, promising in development) and japonica subspecies of rice (<span class="CharOverride-5"><em>O. sativa</em>&nbsp;</span>L.), consumed in Costa Rica.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Twenty-seven materials grown in the Chorotega and Brunca regions of Costa Rica, harvested in 2020 were analyzed. Vitamin E was quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass detection with chemical ionization source at atmospheric pressure at the Centro para Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS), Universidad de Costa Rica, in 2021.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>In the vitamin E profile, a characteristic clustering was obtained for the japonica samples, which was opposite to that presented by the indica samples. The majority compounds were γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol, the range of total vitamin E concentration was 5.50 to 33.20 μg g<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>, where the japonica subspecies reported the lowest amount (6.30 – 8.80 μg g<span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span>), while the Nayuribe sample, belonging to the registered commercial indica subspecies, obtained the highest concentration (33.20 ± 7.40 μg g<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>).&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Conclusion.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Although the analyzed subvarieties are phylogenetically from the same species, the significant differences found in the nutritional intake of vitamin E may be due to intrinsic characteristics of each subspecies. The significantly high vitamin E content in the Nayuribe sample showed that it is possible to find stocks for a high vitamin E content among the varieties analyzed.</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Valery Conejo-López, Luis Barboza-Barquero, Álvaro Azofeifa-Delgado, Ester Vargas-Ramírez, Andrea Irías-Mata Effect of temperature and storage time on hen egg quality 2022-10-04T14:46:55-06:00 Jennifer Madrigal-Portilla Catalina Salas-Durán Sofía Macaya-Quirós <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Introduction. </span></strong>The hen egg is a food of high nutritional value, with protein of high biological value and easy digestion, due to that it is indispensable to know what affects its quality when storing it. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Objective. </span></strong>To evaluate the effect of temperature and days of storage on egg quality. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Materials and methods.</span> </strong>The trial took place between December 2019 and January 2020, in Palmares, Alajuela, Costa Rica. In two different moments, egg samples were taken from Hy Line Brown hens: 1000 eggs at the start of production (21 weeks of age) and 1000 eggs at peak of production (28 weeks of age). The eggs were stored at controlled (7-10 °C) and room ((18-26 °C) temperatures for up to 21 days. The following egg physical quality parameters were assessed: egg weight, eggshell thickness and resistance, Haugh units, and yolk color at 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days of storage, as well as a qualitative evaluation according to USDA standards (2000).<span class="CharOverride-4"> <strong>Results. </strong></span>Egg weight was significantly lower at room temperatures and longer days of storage at peak production. Eggshell thickness and resistance presented a positive relationship with each other. Haugh units presented a significant decrease as storage days go by, with a higher negative slope for the eggs at room temperature. The storage temperature and days of storage degraded the perception and qualitative classification of eggs by the consumers, in higher proportion for the eggs at room temperature. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Conclusion.</span> </strong>Storage at room temperature and between 14 to 21 days were factors that affected the egg quality and the possible consumer’s perception towards this product.</p> 2023-01-24T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jennifer Madrigal-Portilla, Catalina Salas-Durán, Sofía Macaya-Quirós Factors conditioning the adoption rate of technified irrigation systems in Mexico 2022-10-04T14:41:50-06:00 José Alberto García-Salazar Fidel Bautista-Mayorga Ester Reyes-Santiago <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Introduction.</span></strong> To know the factors that determine the rate of adoption of technician irrigation systems is important because of the water savings that could be obtained by increasing the number of units that use more efficient systems. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Objective.</span> </strong>To determine the factors that affect the rate of adoption of technician irrigation systems in Mexico. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Materials and methods.</span></strong> A logit model was estimated where the dependent variable was the logit of the ratio of probabilities of using technician irrigation systems against other irrigation systems. The independent variables were: electricity price, water value, rainfall, temperature, number of over-exploited aquifers, farm size, utilization rate of production units that use sanitary measures, and educational level of agricultural producers. The estimate was made with data from Mexico’s 32 federative entities for 2019. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Results. </span></strong>The results indicated that, if the electricity price and the water value increase by 10 %, the rate or probability of using modernized irrigation systems increases from 24.51 to 25.42 and 26.17 %, respectively. A 10 % decrease in rainfall would increase the probability of using modernized irrigation systems from 24.51 to 25.41 %, while with a 5 % increase in temperature, this probability would increase from 24.51 to 29.40 %.<span class="CharOverride-4"> <strong>Conclusion.</strong> </span>These results demonstrated the importance of economic and climatic conditions as factors that affect the use of technician irrigation systems, therefore, in saving water.</p> 2023-01-19T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 José Alberto García-Salazar, Fidel Bautista-Mayorga, Ester Reyes-Santiago New thilinear hybrid of hard yellow corn for the Peruvian tropic 2022-08-03T11:27:30-06:00 Percy Díaz-Chuquizuta Edilson Hidalgo-Melendez Melbin Mendoza-Paredes Isaac Cieza-Ruiz Teófilo Wladimir Jara-Calvo Ofelia Andrea Valdés-Rodríguez <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction. </span></strong>Hard yellow corn (<em><span class="CharOverride-4">Zea mays </span></em>L.) is the main source for food processing; therefore, it is necessary to generate hybrids with yields higher than 2.8 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup> and climatic adaptability. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective. </span></strong>To evaluate and compare the agronomic behavior of five experimental trilinear hybrids of hard yellow corn maize and the Marginal 28T variety in eight tropical Peruvian locations. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.</span> </strong>The experiment took place in two phases: from March 2018 to March 2019 in four validation plots in San Martin, and from March to December 2019 in four adaptabilities plots in San Martín, Pucallpa, Loreto, and Amazonas. The evaluated variables were: plant and ear height, size and weight of ear, roots lodging, rust resistance, and yield (t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>). A randomized complete block design was applied, with a combined analysis of yield genotype x environment interaction with the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction models. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span> </strong>The hybrid HTE6 had the highest ear diameter (4.66 cm), ear weight (190, 76 g), number of rows per ear (14.26), grains per row (37.45), total grain weight (156.21 g), and grain yield (7.21 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>). HTE6 showed superior adaptability in Iquitos (9.2 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>) and San Martín (8.1 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>). In the genotype-environmental interaction, it reached 7.18 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>, with the highest stability in the eight localities.<span class="CharOverride-2"> <strong>Conclusion. </strong></span>Among the five trilinear hybrids and the Marginal 28T variety, the HTE6 had the best agronomic performance and the highest yield in the eight evaluated locations. Thus, it is considered the more suitable trilinear hybrid for the tropical conditions of Peru.</p> 2022-12-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Percy Díaz-Chuquizuta, Edilson Hidalgo-Melendez, Melbin Mendoza-Paredes, Isaac Cieza-Ruiz, Teófilo Wladimir Jara-Calvo, Ofelia Andrea Valdés-Rodríguez Distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus production areas of Panama 2022-10-04T14:38:22-06:00 Randy Atencio-Valdespino Vidal Aguilera-Cogley Anovel Barba-Alvarado Iván Ramos Rubén Collantes-González José Lezcano <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-8">Introduction.</span></strong> The asian psyllid (<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Diaphorina citri </span>Kuwayama</em>) is the main vector of the bacterium <em><span class="CharOverride-7">Candidatus </span></em>Liberibacter asiaticus that causes Huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus in Panama. <strong><span class="CharOverride-8">Objective.</span> </strong>To determine the geographic distribution and host plants of the asian psyllid within the citrus growing areas in Panama. <span class="CharOverride-8"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> </span>The study was carried out from June to October 2021 through systematic sampling within 46 localities associated with commercial citrus and home gardens in seven provinces of Panama. In each plant, two new shoots of 10 cm long were bagged with a magic-seal plastic bag to capture the specimens and introduce them into 2 mm plastic vials with 95 % alcohol for later identification. The study variable included the count of the total number of specimens, and the data was analyzed as a percentage. <span class="CharOverride-8"><strong>Results.</strong> </span>Of the total of 73 collected samples, the presence of the Asian psyllid was confirmed in 21.92 % (16 samples). Its presence was positive in the provinces of Chiriquí, Coclé, Herrera, Panama, and West Panama, at altitudes of 17 to 1080 m.a.s.l. There was no presence of the psyllid in the provinces of Los Santos and Veraguas. Of the 16 samples that were positive, 50 % belonged to the myrtle plant, followed by orange (18.75 %), and creole lemon (12.50 %).<span class="CharOverride-8"> <strong>Conclusion.</strong></span><strong> </strong>The distribution of the asian psyllid vector of HLB in commercial citrus and home gardens in the main citrus growing areas in Panama was presented at different heights above sea level, mainly associated with the presence of the host plants such as myrtle, orange, and creole lemon.</p> 2023-01-18T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Randy Atencio-Valdespino, Vidal Aguilera-Cogley, Anovel Barba-Alvarado, Iván Ramos, Rubén Collantes-González, José Lezcano Morphological detection of charcoal rot in soybean and corn in Misiones, Argentina 2022-06-09T09:48:57-06:00 M. Lavilla A. De Lucía M. Heck S. Fariza <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Introduction.</span> </strong>Charcoal rot caused by <em><span class="CharOverride-6">Macrophomina phaseolina</span></em> is a pathogen that survives in the soil through microsclerotia (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Sclerotium bataticola</span></em> stage). This pathogen affects different crops, among which soybeans (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Glycine max</span></em> L. Merrill) and corn (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Zea mays</span></em> L.) stand out due to their importance in Argentina. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Objetive. </span></strong>To demonstrate that the cause of the deaths of soybean and corn plants in years of drought in the province of Misiones is charcoal rot. <span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> </span>Samples were collected from different locations in the province of Misiones, Argentina during February 2022. Through naked eye observation of diseased plants and with the help of stereoscopic and optical microscopy, the identity of the pathogen present was determined. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Results.</span> </strong>The presence of microsclerotia compatible with<strong> <span class="CharOverride-6">S. bataticola </span></strong>as the causal agent of charcoal rot was detected in corn and soybean samples in all samples from the province of Misiones.<span class="CharOverride-5"> <strong>Conclusion.</strong></span> Charcoal rot caused by <em><span class="CharOverride-6">M. phaseolina</span></em> is present in soybean and corn crops in the province of Misiones, Argentina.</p> 2023-01-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 M. Lavilla, A. De Lucía, M. Heck, S. Fariza Microbiological quality of raw sausage commercialized in the Great Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica 2022-07-18T09:12:03-06:00 Mauricio Redondo-Solano Valery Cordero-Calderón Adriana Araya-Morice <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Introduction.</span> </strong>In Latin America, reports on the microbiological quality of raw chorizo, or raw pork sausage, are limited, however, it is a widely consumed and traditional product. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Objective.</span> </strong>To determine the microbiological stability of the raw sausage in the Great Metropolitan Area (GAM) of Costa Rica. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Materials and methods. </span></strong>Between January and August 2019, microbial shelf-life counts, and contamination indicators were carried out, as well as the detection of three pathogens (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Salmonella</span> </em>spp., <em><span class="CharOverride-6">Listeria monocytogenes</span></em>, and <em><span class="CharOverride-6">Clostridium perfringens</span></em>) in fifty samples of raw chorizo obtained from butcher shops in the Great Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica. <strong>Results.</strong> Of the fifty samples analyzed, only one was found to be consumable according to the general parameters of bacterial count (total aerobic count [TAM], fungi and yeasts [HYL], and lactic acid bacteria [BAL]). The main cause of spoilage included a combination of BAL and HYL. In addition, the total coliform counts ranged between 10<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">5</span></sup> and 10<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">6</span></sup> UFC/g. From a safety standpoint, <em><span class="CharOverride-6">Salmonella</span></em> spp. was isolated in 16 % of the samples,<span class="CharOverride-6"> <em>Listeria monocytogenes</em> </span>in 10 % and <em><span class="CharOverride-6">Clostridium perfringens</span> </em>was found in a single sample with a count of 5.00x10<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">1</span></sup> CFU/g. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Conclusion. </span></strong>Non-heat treated products, such as raw chorizo sold in the GAM of Costa Rica, are products that are highly susceptible to spoilage, which present high levels of contamination and that could behave as a vehicle for pathogens; therefore, it is recommended to improve manufacturing practices to prolong shelf life and guarantee consumer safety.</p> 2022-12-15T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mauricio Redondo-Solano, Valery Cordero-Calderón, Adriana Araya-Morice Maize productivity (Diamantes 8843) under different planting densities and nitrogen doses 2022-07-12T11:38:46-06:00 Wendy Lázaro-Rojas Jorge Claudio Vargas-Rojas Edgar V. Vega-Villalobos Alfredo Alvarado-Hernández Gilberto Cabalceta-Aguilar Gabriel Garbanzo-León <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Introduction.</span> </strong>In Costa Rica, maize (<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Zea mays</span></em>) is an important component of the population’s diet. However, the planting area has been reduced due to marketing policies and reduced knowledge of agronomic management of the crop. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Objective. </span></strong>To analyze the effect of N doses and planting densities on the productivity of maize variety Los Diamantes 8843 in Santa Cruz, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Materials and methods. </span></strong>The study was carried out between August and December 2018 at the Santa Cruz Experimental Farm, Universidad de Costa Rica. In a randomized complete block design, three planting densities: 50,000, 57,143, and 66,666 plants/ha and four increasing doses of N: 0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup> were evaluated. Plant height, plant fresh weight, stem thickness, cob quality, nutrient uptake and yield were quantified. An analysis of variance was adjusted for each variable. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Results.</span></strong> There was a significant effect of N dose over the variables height, dry weight, number of grains per row, number of ears per useful plot, and nutrient uptake. In general, these variables were higher at high N doses. There was significant effect of planting density on height, number of ears, and nutrient uptake, these variables reached higher values at high densities. Higher efficiency rates were achieved at 100 kg ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup> and at a density of 50,000 plants/ha. The yield was lower in any of the evaluated densities, when N was not applied. The doses of 100 and 200 kg ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup> showed the highest yields, regardless of planting density. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Conclusion.</span></strong> The dose of 100 kg ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup> of N and the density of 57 143 plants/ha showed the highest values for the efficiency indices and the highest yield.</p> 2022-12-14T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Wendy Lázaro-Rojas, Jorge Claudio Vargas-Rojas, Edgar V. Vega-Villalobos, Alfredo Alvarado-Hernández, Gilberto Cabalceta-Aguilar, Gabriel Garbanzo-León Cynara scolymus L. extract and betaine supplementation in sows during lactation 2022-08-19T14:22:34-06:00 Maikol Astúa-Ureña Daniela María Cascante-Víquez Luis Alejandro Rodríguez-Campos Sergio Salazar-Villanea <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction</span>.</strong> The modern sow has the genetic capacity to produce a greater number of piglets per litter and a higher milk production, which means that the animal has higher nutrient requirements.<strong><span class="CharOverride-2"> Objective.</span></strong> To evaluate the performance of sows and their progeny to the supplementation of a commercial product based on artichoke dry extract (<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Cynara scolymus</span></em>) and betaine hydrochloride during the lactation period.<span class="CharOverride-2"> <strong>Materials and methods.</strong></span> The study was carried out during the first semester of 2020, in the province of Limón, Costa Rica. A total of 42 lactating sows were used and distributed in three treatments: control diet (T1), control diet + 0.25 kg t<sup><span class="CharOverride-5">-1</span></sup> of commercial product (T2), and control diet + 0.50 kg t<sup><span class="CharOverride-5">-1</span> </sup>of commercial product (T3); the diets were isoproteic and isocaloric. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Results.</strong> </span>The inclusion of the additive showed a tendency to improve (p=0.09) the parameters evaluated in the sow. Body condition score loss was lower (p=0.03) with the T2, while supplementation with 0.50 kg t<span class="CharOverride-5"><sup>-1</sup> </span>presented intermediate results. There were no significant differences (p&gt;0.05) between treatments for the parameters evaluated in the litters (weaning weight, weight gain, and number of weaned piglets by sow). <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusion. </span></strong>The use of the additive showed a tendency to improve feed intake in the sow during the lactation period, reducing body weight loss and corporal condition during this period. The inclusion of the additive did not improve the performance in the piglets. piglets/sow). <strong>Conclusion</strong>. The use of the additive tended to improve important parameters in the sow during the lactation period, however, more research is needed on the animal's response to the additive during lactation and in the following cycle to obtain conclusive results.</p> 2023-01-18T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Maikol Artúa-Ureña, Daniela María Cascante-Víquz, Luis Alejandro Rodríguez-Campos, Sergio Salazar-Villanea Optimization of the “Germinator” as a complement for the analysis of seed germination quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.) 2022-09-24T09:03:03-06:00 Andrés Hernández-Pridybailo Ester Vargas-Ramírez Dessireé Zerpa-Catanho Marialicia Vega-López Adonay Zúñiga-Centeno Luis Orlando Barboza-Barquero <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The use of digital image analysis with the “Germinator” allows the automatic evaluation of seed germination. In addition to maximum germination, other parameters associated with seed germination vigor can be quantified simultaneously.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Objective.</span>&nbsp;</strong>To optimize the “Germinator” as a complement for the automatic analysis of seed germination quality in rice.<span class="CharOverride-5">&nbsp;<strong>Materials and methods.</strong></span>&nbsp;The experiments were conducted at the Centro para Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS) from 2015 to 2018. The “Germinator” software package was optimized on the Palmar 18 variety, and then tested with a panel of 126 rice seed samples comprising fourteen varieties. The germination curves were quantified, the automatically acquired data were compared with manual counting based on radical protrusion and a standardized method. Besides, accelerated aging and controlled aging experiments were conducted to show the sensibility of the automatic method.<span class="CharOverride-5">&nbsp;<strong>Results.&nbsp;</strong></span>The relationship between germination quantified automatically and quantified manually was high (R<span class="CharOverride-4">2</span>= 0.99). Maximum germination, quantified by image analysis, ranged from 69 % to 100 % in the panel of 126 samples. The correlation between germination assessed by digital images and the standard method was&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-6">rho&nbsp;</span>(spearman)= 0.34. The “Germinator” allowed the simultaneous quantification of other variables associated with seed vigor, such as the t50 parameter, which is the time the seed lot takes to reach 50 % of the germination. In addition, the automatic method revealed the differential effect of two seed aging protocols.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>Conclusions.</strong>&nbsp;</span>The use of digital image analysis made it possible to evaluate automatically seed germination based on radicle protrusion and also made it possible to quantify other complementary variables associated with seed vigor (t50).</p> 2022-09-23T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Luis Orlando Barboza-Barquero, Andrés Hernández-Pridybailo, Ester Vargas-Ramírez, Dessireé Zerpa-Catanho, Marialicia Vega-López, Adonay Zúñiga-Centeno Rizobia identification promoters of the vegetable growth associated to chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) 2022-08-09T14:08:13-06:00 Marisel Ortega García Yoania Ríos Rocafull Lily Zelaya Molina Juan Lara Aguilera Ramón Orteaga Garibay María Caridad Nápoles García <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span></strong> <em><span class="CharOverride-5">Rhizobium</span> </em>has been used as a growth stimulator in leguminous. Different species of this group are associated with chickpea (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Cicer arietium</span></em> L.), so it is important to obtain isolated with capacity of benefitting their growth and productivity. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.</span></strong> To select and identify isolates of<span class="CharOverride-5"> <em>Rhizobium</em></span> sp. in terms of their attributes as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria with greater effectiveness in their association with chickpea cultivars. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> </span>The studies were carried out during the years 2017-2020, at the Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical “Alejandro of Humboldt”, Havana, Cuba. Three rhizobia strains, obtained from chickpea nodules were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing and characterized for their potential as growth-promoting bacteria. An experiment was carried out in field conditions in two campaigns to demonstrate their effectiveness in the interaction with plants. For the experiments under laboratory conditions a completely randomized design was used, while the field trials were conducted under a randomized block design, in both cases an analysis of variance was performed. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results. </span></strong>The three bacterial strains associated with chickpea and identified as <em><span class="CharOverride-5">Rhizobium</span></em> sp. fixed atmospheric nitrogen, solubilized calcium phosphate, released phytohormones and were able to inhibit the growth of <em><span class="CharOverride-5">Fusarium oxysporum</span></em>, <span class="CharOverride-5"><em>Fusarium incarnatum</em>,</span> and <em><span class="CharOverride-5">Fusarium moniliforme</span></em>. Inoculation in chickpea increased the nodulation and the crop yield variables such as number of pods per plant and fresh grain mass (g). <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions. </span></strong><em><span class="CharOverride-5">Rhizobium</span></em> sp. strains were identified with attributes as plant growth-promoting bacteria associated with national chickpea cultivars, that increased their nodulation and yield.</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Marisel Ortega García, Yoania Ríos Rocafull, Lily Zelaya Molina, Juan Lara Aguilera, Ramón Orteaga Garibay, María Caridad Nápoles García Consumers perceptions about the welfare of farm animals in Colombia 2022-08-09T14:00:45-06:00 Fredy E. García Castro Catalina Medrano-Galarza Jaime A. Cubides-Cárdenas Aldemar Zúñiga López Diego G. Ahumada-Beltrán <p class="Texto ParaOverride-2"><strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Introduction.</span> </strong>Research focused on listening and understanding public attitudes towards farm animal welfare is proliferating globally. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Objective. </span></strong>To determine how consumers in Colombia perceive the welfare of farm animals and socio-demographic factors associated with such perceptions. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Materials and methods. </span></strong>A descriptive and analytical epidemiological study was done through the implementation of a cross-sectional national online survey, conducted from September to October-2021, to obtain information on the knowledge and attitudes of consumers (≥18 years) in Colombia regarding farm animal welfare, as well as socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, education, occupation, location, growing-up environment, level of contact with livestock farms, and diet). Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations of demographic factors with the level of importance given to animal welfare (AW), perceptions about needs, behavior, and sentience in farm animals, and perceptions about the state and promotion of AW in Colombia.<strong> <span class="CharOverride-4">Results. </span></strong>Responses from 798 participants were included in the analysis, 85.57 % saw AW as a concept that refers to how to treat animals and improve their quality of life. The level of importance given to AW was 9.78±0.85 (scale from 0 to 10) and was associated with words such as health, food, caring, respect, and comfort. Sex, age, education, level of contact with a farm, and growing-up in rural areas significantly influenced the opinions regarding the concept of AW and the promotion of farm animal welfare in Colombia.<span class="CharOverride-4"> <strong>Conclusion. </strong></span>The participants showed concern about farm animal welfare. The differences found associated with the different socio-demographic factors can be used as a basis for formulating education and empowerment strategies that help modulate changes in the way animals are seen, and what welfare means and what it implies.</p> 2022-12-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fredy E. García Castro, Catalina Medrano-Galarza, Jaime A. Cubides-Cárdenas, Aldemar Zúñiga López, Diego G. Ahumada-Beltrán Aspergillus species associated with grains of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivated in Costa Rica 2022-09-16T00:50:07-06:00 Fabiola Carranza-Mesén Mónica Blanco-Meneses Maria del Milagro Granados-Montero Maria Vinas Meneses <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Introduction.</span></strong>&nbsp;Common beans (<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Phaseolus vulgaris</span></em>&nbsp;L.) and peanuts (<span class="CharOverride-7"><em>Arachis hypogaea</em>&nbsp;</span>L.) are legumes, widely consumed in developing countries. However, those grains could be contaminated with&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Aspergillus</span></em>, a genus of fungus that includes mycotoxin-producing species.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To identify the&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-7"><em>Aspergillus</em>&nbsp;</span>species that colonize the grains of common beans and peanuts in Costa Rica and to identify atoxigenic strains of&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-7">A. flavus</span></em>.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-6"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Eighty-three samples of common bean grains and nineteen samples of peanuts were collected during the years 2019 and 2020 in regions where those grains are produced in Costa Rica. All samples were used to isolate and identify&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-7"><em>Aspergillus</em>&nbsp;</span>species by partial sequences of&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-7">ITS&nbsp;</span>(internal transcribed spacer) and&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-7">cmd</span>&nbsp;(calmodulin) genes. Atoxigenic strains of&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-7"><em>A. flavus</em>&nbsp;</span>were also identified by chemical and molecular methods.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Results.</span></strong>&nbsp;46 % and 32 % of the collected common beans and peanuts samples, respectively, were contaminated with&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Aspergillus</span></em>&nbsp;spp. In common beans, 85 isolates of&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Aspergillus&nbsp;</span></em>were obtained, most of them belonging to&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-7">A. flavus</span></em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-7">A. niger</span></em>&nbsp;species. Most of the&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-7">A. flavus&nbsp;</span></em>isolates were obtained from the Cabécar (fifteen isolates) and Nambí (seven isolates) common bean varieties, while&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-7"><em>A. niger</em>&nbsp;</span>was mostly isolated from the Cabécar variety (eleven isolates). In the case of peanuts, thirteen isolates were obtained, most of them identified as&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-7">A. niger</span></em>. No atoxigenic strains were found in peanuts, however, in common beans, five strains of&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-7">A. flavus</span></em>&nbsp;with this characteristic were found.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>The present study demonstrated the diversity of <em>Aspergillus</em> species that colonize the grains of common beans and peanuts in Costa Rica. Most of the species isolated are producers of mycotoxins that cause adverse effects on human health.</p> 2022-09-06T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Fabiola Carranza-Mesén, Mónica Blanco-Meneses, Maria del Milagro Granados-Montero, Maria Vinas Meneses Entomofauna asociada a pasturas tropicales Cenchrus ciliaris, Chloris gayana y Megathyrsus maximus 2022-10-06T11:55:05-06:00 Paola Vanessa Sierra-Baquero Tatiana Sánchez-Doria Esteban Burbano-Erazo <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Introduction. </span></strong>Pastures are the primary source of food in livestock systems and can be a suitable niche for insects with beneficial and harmful functions. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Objective.</span></strong> To estimate the entomofauna associated with three species of pastures, <em><span class="CharOverride-6">Cenchrus ciliaris</span>, <span class="CharOverride-6">Chloris gayana</span>,</em> and <em><span class="CharOverride-6">Megathyrsus maximus</span></em>, in conditions of the Colombian Caribbean. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Materials and methods.</span> </strong>Ten samplings were carried out in two contrasting periods (August to October 2018 and January to March 2019), three forage species (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Cenchrus ciliaris</span>, <span class="CharOverride-6">Megathyrsus maximus</span>, <span class="CharOverride-6">Chloris gayan</span>a</em>) within 1000 m<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">2</span></sup> were used. Arthropods were identified by order and family and typified by functional groups. Diversity and abundance indices by pasture and season were estimated, as well as their correlation with climate. A simple correspondence analysis was performed. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Results. </span></strong>A total of 380 insects from 7 orders and 35 families were collected, with the greatest abundance for Hemiptera and Coleoptera. The Shannon’s diversity index was higher for all orders of <em><span class="CharOverride-6">C. gayana</span></em>, except for Hemiptera in <em><span class="CharOverride-6">C. ciliaris</span></em>. Phytophages were found in a higher percentage (66.84 %), followed by predators (27.11 %). Insect abundance was influenced by the interaction between season and pasture, showing an increase at low temperatures, except for <em><span class="CharOverride-6">M. maximus</span></em>. Pastures represented adequate microenvironments to maintain the diversity of insects, the Hemiptera and Coleoptera orders being the most numerous and representative of the functional groups of phytophages and predators, respectively. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Conclusion.</span> </strong>The entomofauna of <em><span class="CharOverride-6">C. gayana</span></em>, <em><span class="CharOverride-6">C. ciliaris</span></em>, and <span class="CharOverride-6"><em>M. maximus</em> </span>was similar in insect abundance and diversity, however, insect abundance depended on the influence of the season and pastures.</p> 2023-01-25T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Paola Vanessa Sierra-Barquero, Tatiana Sánchez-Doria, Esteban Burbano-Erazo Applied approach to entomology during the last forty-years in Panama 2022-10-25T11:29:50-06:00 Randy Atencio-Valdespino Rubén Collantes-González <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span></strong> Insects are associated with human communities, with positive and negative impacts within each society. This aspect is the basis of the study of insects as a science called entomology, which involves the development of various branches. Due to the social and economic importance of this science in various areas of Panamanian society, a significant development has been achieved during the last forty years. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Objective.</strong> </span>To determine the branches of entomology applied in Panama during the last four decades. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Development. </span></strong>The development of entomology in Panama focused on promoting general, agricultural, veterinary, medical, and forensic entomology through the development of research, teaching, and the establishment of the necessary foundations to promote science. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Conclusions.</strong> </span>Five branches, including general, agricultural, veterinary, medical, and forensic entomology, constituted the cornerstone and the impetus for the development of entomology as a science for forty years at the service of Panamanian society, justified by social needs related to health, food, and the economic aspects. In recent years topics such as the environment, climate change, and sustainability have also been included.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Randy Atencio Valdespino, Rubén Collantes González Effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Pseudomonas migulae on the growth of gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) seedlings 2022-07-05T11:41:33-06:00 Camilo Rubén Beltrán-Acosta Yimmy Alexander Zapata-Narváez Duván Albeiro Millán-Montaño Andrés Díaz-García <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The use of plant growth-promoting bacteria can be an alternative to be integrated as a management strategy of cape gooseberry crop through their incorporation in seedling stages, allowing to obtain more vigorous seedlings that can tolerate biotic and abiotic stress at the time of transplant. <strong>Objective.</strong> To evaluate the plant growth promoting activity and endophytic capacity of <em>Bacillus amyloliquefaciens</em> Bs006 and <em>Pseudomonas migulae</em> Pf014 inoculated during the seedling stage of cape gooseberry (<em>Physalis peruviana</em> L.). <strong>Materials and methods.</strong> In a randomized complete block design with three replications, an experiment was carried out from April to May 2018 in a greenhouse located at the Tibaitatá Research Center, Mosquera, Colombia. Bacteria were inoculated separately in the substrate at 1 x 10<sup>8</sup> UFC mL<sup>-1</sup>. Physiological variables such as dry biomass of the root, stem, and leaves (g), final length (cm), leaf area (cm<sup>2</sup>), and the number of leaves were analyzed; additionally, its endophytism was verified by evaluating the colonization of the plant tissue. <strong>Results.</strong> <em>B. amyloliquefaciens</em> Bs006 stimulated seedling growth at different levels, exhibiting greater promotion capacity than <em>P. migulae</em> Pf014, since it increased plant length by 34 %, and stem and root growth by 59 % and 16 %, respectively; also, increase in dry root biomass by 178 %, stem by 161 %, and leaves by 96 % was found. In addition, bacteria were isolated from the interior of plant tissues, demonstrating their endophytic behavior. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The positive response in all the agronomic variables evaluated with the application of <em>B. amyloliquefaciens</em> Bs006, indicates that this rhizobacterium can be integrated into the cape gooseberry production scheme, helping to enhance crop production.</p> 2022-12-13T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Camilo Rubén Beltrán-Acosta, Yimmy Alexander Zapata Narváez, Sr., Duván Albeiro Millán Montaño, Sr., Andrés Díaz García, Sr. Net blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare), caused by Drechslera teres and its effect on yield 2022-07-26T14:16:57-06:00 A. Petta M. Lavilla <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1"><span class="CharOverride-6"><strong>Introduction.</strong> </span>Barley (<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Hordeum vulgare</span></em>) net blotch (MR) causes yield losses estimated between 23 % to 44 %, as well as its malting quality.<strong> <span class="CharOverride-6">Objective. </span></strong>To evaluate over time the evolution of net blotch in different malting barley cultivars with and without application of foliar fungicide, associating it with yield and malting quality. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Materials and methods.</span> </strong>The trial was carried out during 2017 at the experimental field Universidad Nacional del Noroeste of the Buenos Aires province, in the city of Junín (Bs. As., Argentina) with an experimental block design with a 5x2 factorial arrangement and three repetitions, with randomization within blocks. Factor 1 was the cultivars and factor 2 was the foliar fungicide treatment. The pathometric variables incidence and severity were used to calculate the intensity of the MR and subsequently the area under the disease intensity progress curve (ABCPIE). <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Results. </span></strong>There was no interaction between cultivars and foliar fungicide application. The application of the foliar fungicide allowed a decrease in the ABCPIE in all the cultivars evaluated. Caliper was significantly associated (R2=0.67; p&lt;0.0001) and inversely proportional to ABCPIE.<strong> </strong><span class="CharOverride-6"><strong>Conclusions.</strong> </span>The temporal evolution of the MR depended on the cultivar. Sinfonia had the lowest ABCPIE compared to the other cultivars evaluated. The application of foliar fungicide significantly reduced the evolution of MR over time. The disease influenced yield components and industrial quality of malting barley.</p> 2022-12-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 A. Petta, M. Lavilla