Habenaria agasthyamalaiana, a new species of terrestrial orchid is described from Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary of Agasthyamalai biosphere reserve, a part of the South-western Ghats. This species is morphologically similar to Habenaria crinifera Lindl. Detailed description and photographs are provided for identification of this new taxon.

Key words: Agasthyamalai, Kerala, Kollam, New species, Shendurney wildlife sanctuary, Western Ghats