Lankesteriana: International Journal on Orchidology <p><a href="">LANKESTERIANA</a>, the Scientific Journal of <a href="">Jardín Botánico Lankester</a> - Universidad de Costa Rica, is devoted to the publication of original contributions on orchidology, including orchid systematics, ecology, evolution, anatomy, physiology, history, etc., as well as reviews of books and conferences on these topics. Short communications and commentaries are also accepted and should be titled as such. The official language of the journal is English (papers are published with a Spanish summary), and manuscripts submitted in Spanish will be considered case by case. Manuscripts are evaluated critically by two or more external referees, in double-blind mode. </p> <p>Through <a href=""><strong>Early View</strong></a>, Lankesteriana is committed to considering shortening the times requested for effective publication of scientific, peer-reviewed papers, for the benefit of both the authors and the readers of the journal. The papers in this section of Lankesteriana receive an individual DOI and are published online as soon as the editorial process is concluded positively. They represent early views of the final papers exactly as they will be included in the hard-printed, complete issue of the journal. The effective date of publication of each paper is established by the date of its first publication online, which is recorded on the front page of the paper both in its online and hard-printed versions. The printed version of LANKESTERIANA is published periodically in volumes by the Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica. Each volume is made up of three issues published in April (covers the period from January to April), August (covers from May to August), and December (covers from September to December).</p> <p>LANKESTERIANA is indexed by Clarivate Biosis, <a href=";pid=1409-3871&amp;lng=en&amp;nrm=iso">SciELO</a>, <a href="">Scopus</a>, <a href=";context=L&amp;vid=01USC_INST:01USC&amp;lang=en&amp;search_scope=MyInstitution&amp;adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&amp;tab=LibraryCatalog&amp;query=any,contains,lankesteriana&amp;sortby=rank&amp;offset=0">Scirus</a>, <a href=";colors=3&amp;lang=en&amp;jour_id=125187">WZB</a>, <a href="">Redalyc</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, <a href=";acc_sequence=000666735">PERIODICA</a>, <a href="">BIBLAT</a>, <a href="">The Latindex Directory</a>, and it is included in databases such as <a href="">E-journals</a>, Ebookbrowse, FAO Online Catalogues, CiteBank, Mendeley, WorldCat, <a href="">Core Electronic Journals Library</a>, and Biodiversity Heritage Library, and in the electronic resources of the <a href="">Columbia University</a>, the <a href="">University of Florida</a>, the University of Hamburg, and the <a href="">Smithsonian Institution</a>, among others. </p> <p class="p1">The Lankester Botanical Garden is a research center of the University of Costa Rica, LANKESTERIANA´ s publishing institution, which holds the copyright and publishing rights of every contribution, under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 Costa Rica license (<a href="">CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 CR</a>).</p> <p>Postmaster: Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica, P.O. Box 302-7050 Cartago, Costa Rica, C.A.</p> <p>ISSN-e: 2215-2067 | ISSN 1409-3871</p> Universidad de Costa Rica en-US Lankesteriana: International Journal on Orchidology 1409-3871 <p>According to the Open Access policy promoted by the University of Costa Rica, all the papers published by Lankesteriana are licensed under the Creative Commons copyright and can be downloaded free of charge. <strong>The journal holds copyright and publishing rights&nbsp;under the CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 CR license.</strong></p> <p>Before the publication of the materials submitted by the author(s) in LANKESTERIANA, the author(s) hereby assign all rights in the article to the Lankester Botanical Garden.</p> INDEX OF TAXONOMIC NOVELTIES, LANKESTERIANA VOL. 21–22, 2021–2022 <p>INDEX OF TAXONOMIC NOVELTIES, LANKESTERIANA VOL. 21–22, 2021–2022</p> Lankesteriana International Journal on Orchidology Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 10.15517/lank.v22i3.53486 INDEX OF SCIENTIFIC REVIEWERS, LANKESTERIANA VOL. 21–22, 2021–2022 <p>The Editor-in-Chief, Managing Editors, Editorial Committee, Editorial Board, and Editorial staff of LANKESTERIANA acknowledge the reviewers listed below for their willing cooperation. It is greatly appreciated that they have generously invested their time and competence in providing valuable comments and advice, for the benefit of the authors, the editorial staff, and the readers of LANKESTERIANA</p> Lankesteriana International Journal on Orchidology Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-17 2022-12-17 10.15517/lank.v22i3.53489 Voucher specimens matter! Confirmation of <i>Lecanorchis multiflora</i> (Vanilloideae) in the tropical rainforest of the Philippines with notes on its habitat and conservation status <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Lecanorchis multiflora </em>(Orchidaceae) was recently collected in Mt. Timolan Protected Landscape, province of Zamboanga del Sur, in the Philippine archipelago. This is the first record of the species with a voucher specimen in the Philippines. A description based on our recent collection, colour photographs to aid identification, geographic distribution information, ecology, phenology, and IUCN conservation assessment are provided below.</p> Mark Arcebal K. Naive Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro Kenji Suetsugu Copyright (c) 2022 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica 2022-09-22 2022-09-22 175 179 10.15517/lank.v22i3.52532 Orchids of the Southern Cone (1830–2000) – Part I Claude Gay’s physical and political history of Chile <p style="font-weight: 400;">The life and works of French botanist Claude (Claudio) Gay (1800–1873) are presented, with special consideration to Orchidaceae. This work aims to bring to light the life of a brilliant scientist who dedicated his professional life to the study of Chile’s natural history and his seldom-mentioned monumental work that contains the first complete orchid flora of Chile. The most important modern and contemporary bibliographical sources have been consulted, as well as Gay’s original publications. Claude (Claudio) arrived in Chile in 1828 and lived in the country until 1842, engaged by the Chilean government to conduct a scientific survey of the country. He traveled across the country collecting objects of natural history which became the foundation stone of the Cabinet of Natural History, the precursor of Chile’s National Museum of Natural History. Gay returned to France in 1842 and, commissioned by the Chilean Minister of the Interior, published his <em>Historia física y política de Chile</em>, a monumental work in 30 volumes that were published between 1844 and 1871. Eight volumes, published in Paris between 1845 and 1852, containing 3767 species of plants, were dedicated to botany. Following the incomplete works of Juan Ignacio Molina’s <em>Saggio sulla Storia Naturale del Chili </em>(1782) and Ruiz and Pavon’s <em>Flora Peruvianae et Chilensis </em>(1789–1803) it was the first attempt to produce a complete flora of Chile. A total of 49 species of Orchidaceae were described and partly illustrated, a remarkable achievement if we consider that by the turn of the 21<sup>st</sup> century, a total of orchids was only 52 had been reported for Chile. Claudio Gay is considered the first recorder of the country’s history and the founder of modern natural science in republican Chile.</p> Carlos Ossenbach Copyright (c) 2022 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica 2022-11-10 2022-11-10 181–206 181–206 10.15517/lank.v22i3.52665 A small-flowered <i>Cyrtochilum</i> (Oncidiinae) from Colombia <div><span lang="EN-US">A new species of <em>Cyrtochilum</em> from the Co<a name="_Hlk107070010"></a>rdillera Oriental range in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia, is described, illustrated, and compared with <em>C. suarezii</em> and <em>C.</em> <em>parviflorum. </em>The new species is easily distinguished by its broadly elliptic to sub</span><span lang="EN-GB">–rhomboid lip with two short rounded simple calli on the lip, ornamented with short papillae at the base.</span></div> Juan Camilo Ordóñez-Blanco Edicson Parra-Sánchez Copyright (c) 2022 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica 2022-11-01 2022-11-01 207 214 10.15517/lank.v22i3.52974 Spread of the African spotted orchid <i>Oeceoclades maculata</i> in the New World <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Oeceoclades maculata </em>(Lindl.) Lindl. (= <em>Eulophia maculata </em>(Lindl.) Rchb.f.) has a broad native range across tropical Africa and Madagascar. Here, we document the spread of <em>O. maculata</em> in the New World, using published records, herbarium specimens, photographs posted online, and our own collections. The earliest known New World record of <em>O. maculata</em> is from Brazil dating to before 1790. Until 1962,<em> O. maculata</em> was known in the New World only from South America. Since then, this species has spread north through Central America into Mexico and across the West Indies to Florida and the Bahamas. It was first found in Florida in 1974, and until 1994 all Florida records of<em> O. maculata</em> were restricted to Miami-Dade County (except one record of greenhouse escapees in Gainesville). Here, we document<em> O. maculata</em> records from the following geographic areas in the New World: 11 South American countries (all except Chile and Uruguay), all 7 Central American countries, Mexico, 22 West Indian island-groups, and Florida. We also document records from 31 counties in peninsular Florida. <em>Oeceoclades maculata</em> has now been recorded in the New World from northeastern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (~28.5°S) and Estancia Santa Teresa, Corrientes, Argentina (28.0°S) in the south, to Gainesville (29.7°N) and Palm Coast, Florida (29.6°N) in the north. A report of<em> O. maculata</em> populations in Gainesville dying out after a hard frost suggests that this species may have reached its northern outdoor limit in peninsular Florida. Although its impact on native species in the New World appears to be minor, there are efforts to eradicate<em> O. maculata</em> in some natural areas.</p> Sarah K. Wetterer James K. Wetterer Copyright (c) 2022 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica 2022-11-11 2022-11-11 215–224 215–224 10.15517/lank.v22i3.53113 Size dependent allocation to vegetative and reproductive organs of the orchid <i>Lankesterella ceracifolia</i> (Spiranthinae) <div><span lang="EN-US">How functional organ traits vary with increasing plant size reveals the strategies of plants to acquire, store and utilize resources that ensure vegetative growth and reproduction. Plant size can influence fitness; thus, the relationships of organ traits should be evaluated together with reproductive allocation, but this is rarely the case. The relationship among plant size, functional organ traits (number and size of roots, leaves and flowers, and scape size), and dry mass partitioning was analyzed intraspecifically using 35 reproductive individuals of the epiphytic orchid <em>Lankesterella ceracifolia. </em>The relationships between vegetative and reproductive organ traits were evaluated using different regression models. Size-dependent allocation to reproduction was evaluated through reproductive versus vegetative (RV) regressions for the entire inflorescence and separately for scape and flowers. The four regression models included simple (slope only), linear (slope and intercept), allometric (without intercept), and non-linear (allometric with intercept), were fitted to RV and compared via a log likelihood-ratio test. Preferential allocation to leaves instead of roots influenced how rosette frontal area changed with increasing plant size. Flower dry mass represented 70% of the inflorescence dry mass, an unusual result as scape dry mass generally represents most of the reproductive structure in plants. The allometric model was suitable for the entire inflorescence or only the scape, while the isometric model was best for flowers. Dry mass investment in the scape influenced the final reproductive allometry found for the orchid <em>L</em>. <em>ceracifolia</em>.</span></div> André Mantovani Copyright (c) 2022 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica 2022-11-16 2022-11-16 225–240 225–240 10.15517/lank.v22i3.53115 A new species of <i>Andinia</i> (Pleurothallidinae) from Peru and an updated phylogenetic analysis of the genus with emphasis on subgenus <i>Aenigma</i> <p>A new species, <em>Andinia peruviana</em>, from Amazonas department, Peru, is described and illustrated. Updated phylogenetic analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) sequences in this study re-affirm the monophyletic nature of <em>Andinia sensu lato</em> and further support the previously proposed circumscription which incorporated genera <em>Lueranthos</em>, <em>Masdevalliantha</em>, <em>Neooreophilus,</em> and <em>Xenosia</em>. <em>Andinia</em> subgenus <em>Aenigma</em> was strongly supported in all analyses. The new species was determined phylogenetically to belong to subgenus <em>Aenigma</em>, along with <em>A. barbata</em>, <em>A. dalstroemii</em>, <em>A. hirtzii</em>, <em>A. pogonion</em>, <em>A. schizopogon </em>and <em>A. uchucayensis</em>. The phylogenetically-confirmed representatives of subgenus <em>Aenigma</em> are illustrated with drawings and photographs, and their geographic distribution is discussed. The updated phylogenetic analyses also show the corrected phylogenetic positions of <em>A. vestigipetala</em>, as the sole representative of the clade corresponding to subgenus <em>Minuscula</em>, and <em>A. trimytera</em>, as a member of the clade corresponding to subgenus <em>Andinia</em>.</p> Luis Ocupa-Horna Sebastián Vieira-Uribe Raven Ward Caroline Brose Mark Wilson Copyright (c) 2022 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 241–262 241–262 10.15517/lank.v22i3.53319 Evidence of artificial selection: are orchids in cultivation an effective <i>ex situ</i> conservation strategy? <p style="font-weight: 400;">Artificial selection is the process by which humans change morphological and genetic characteristics of species through selection of “favored” characters. Although the gray literature suggests the process is occurring in orchids held in <em>ex situ</em> collections, there is limited evidence of this in the scientific literature. There is a perspective among growers that species (not hybrids) held in <em>ex situ</em> collections are potential sources of material for use in <em>in situ</em> re-establishment, however, this assumes that there has not been any artificial selection for morphological characters, or functional traits while grown and propagated <em>ex situ</em>. Here we evaluate if plants grown in <em>ex situ</em> collections show changes in morphological characters across time and if the range of character size is within the range from <em>in situ</em> populations. We evaluated plants from the American Orchid Society database from nine genera and 54 species. We noted that 35% of characters evaluated had evidence of significant change across time. Moreover, for most species in <em>ex situ</em> the evaluated characters were frequently (95%) outside the range of plants of natural populations based on species descriptions. If variation in size of <em>ex situ </em>collections as compared to <em>in situ</em> plants is genetically based, it is possible that these would be functionally maladaptive if re-introduced to their natural environment. Protocols for <em>ex situ</em> conservation programs need to focus on the morphological, biochemical, and ecological interactions and genetic diversity that would render the re-introduction of <em>ex situ </em>to their natural environment to maximize the likelihood of effective re-establishment. Consequently, species which are awarded recognition at orchid shows may potentially be inappropriate for plants within an <em>in situ</em> reintroduction conservation program.</p> Raymond L. Tremblay Paola A. Alicea-Roman Abimelys Anaya-Reyes Sean Duclerc-Rodas Ivanellys Medina-Tirado Copyright (c) 2022 Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica 2022-12-14 2022-12-14 10.15517/lank.v22i3.53443