Población y Salud en Mesoamérica 2022-12-08T00:00:00-06:00 Adrián Murillo González Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Población y Salud en Mesoamérica&nbsp;</strong>is an&nbsp;academic&nbsp;electronic&nbsp;journal, published biannually by the Centro Centroamericano de Población&nbsp;and whose publisher is the University of Costa Rica. The <strong>main objective</strong> of this publication is the dissemination of research on population from demographic perspective, and public health. This journal is <a href="">registered and indexed</a> in important international indexes. E-mail contact: <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>URL OAI-PMH:</strong> <a href="/index.php/psm/oai"></a></p> Epidemiological profile of tuberculosis in the prison population of Minas Gerais, Brazil 2022-04-23T18:01:05-06:00 Marcos Vinicius Teixeira Martins Márcio Cesário Cunha Sobrinho Gabriel Machado de Souza Stefan Vilges de Oliveira <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Tuberculosis is the major cause of health problems among communicable diseases and predominates as an etiology in cases of death from a single infectious agent. In the prison environment, this is even more evident, as overcrowding, poor nutrition, drug consumption and the coexistence of other diseases, associated with the precariousness of the health service, favors the spread of the disease within the walls and to the families of inmates. Currently, it is estimated that the incidence of tuberculosis in the population deprived of liberty corresponds to approximately 11.2% of new cases in the country, and this group represents only 0.3% of the Brazilian population. <strong>Methods:</strong> In this context, the present study aims to carry out an epidemiological analysis of tuberculosis in the prison population of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN), in addition to identifying the main factors related to this type of involvement using measures of dispersion, central tendency and frequency, as well as Student’s T tests for independent samples and Mann-Whitney U tests in cases where the assumptions for parametric tests were not met, considering a 95 % confidence interval. <strong>Results:</strong> 1880 cases of tuberculosis were registered, with a monthly average of 22.38 notifications. The proximity of the factors brown ethnicity, male sex, age between 20 and 29 years to the center of case density and between the use of alcohol, other drugs and the abandonment of treatment was notable. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Thus, the need for new prevention strategies in this context is highlighted due to the high incidence of tuberculosis, often related to negligence and misinformation.</p> 2022-12-08T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Marcos Vinicius Teixeira Martins, Márcio Cesário Cunha Sobrinho, Gabriel Machado de Souza, Stefan Vilges de Oliveira Caracterization of migration from Venezuela to Colombia and its influence on family reunification 2022-10-12T11:42:01-06:00 J. Sebastian Ruiz-Santacruz Elizabeth Castellanos César Andrés Cristancho Fajardo <p>This research characterizes Venezuelan migration to Colombia, according to sex, educational level, work activity and by geographical area of ​​the migrants and the times of household reunification. Based on the results of the Colombian Population and Housing Census 2018 (CNPV-2018), the demographic profile of migrants is analyzed, and the characteristic forms of household reunification of Venezuelans in Colombia are examined based on migration times using estimators. Kaplan-Meier and Cox models are used, which allow us to identify that factors such as age, educational level, year of arrival and economic activity are determinants of said reunification times. The research identified that the increase in migration from Venezuela has been decisive in the recent transition of the structure of the Colombian population according to age and sex, as it is concentrated in intermediate ages and with a differentiated profile in the main cities. Likewise, it was possible to identify that the recent Venezuelan migration pattern can be classified as family-type, with emphasis on productive and reproductive ages, and a high presence of minors, and that the still active ties with spouses, children and, in general, relatives who were pioneers in the migratory process is a factor that plays a fundamental role in the differences in the propensities to migrate by households and their members.</p> 2022-12-08T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 J. Sebastian Ruiz-Santacruz, Elizabeth Castellanos, César Andrés Cristancho Fajardo Prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms, in colonies hosting stone miners, in San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico 2022-06-23T23:13:42-06:00 Blanca Eneida Mazariegos García Gerardo Alberto González Figueroa Verónica Gutiérrez Villalpando Guadalupe del Carmen Álvarez Gordillo Ernesto Benito Salvatierra Izabá <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The study estimated the prevalence rate of Acute Respiratory Diseases and Symptoms (ESRA) and its risk factors (RF), it was carried out in three host neighborhoods: Salsipuedes (200 households), San Miguel (35) and Ampliación San Miguel (9) from the southeast region of the city of San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas, Mexico, where the Salsipuedes stone mining company of sand and gravel for construction of roads and houses is located, for 35 years of extraction. <strong>Methodology:</strong> A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out, it began with a population census, where the survey was accepted in 156 (63.9 % of the total) and a structured questionnaire with closed and open questions was applied to an adult of each family. The questions were oriented to identify the signs and symptoms of incident and prevalent diseases (closed questions), on the other hand, six open qualitative questions related to how do you consider the activity of the sandbank that exists in your neighborhood?, to identify the perceptions of the risk for social, environmental and health damages, and whether or not they associated them with living in those neighboring host neighborhoods of the mining company. <strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence rate of ESRA in Salsipuedes was 5.6%, San Miguel 12.0% and Ampliación San Miguel 21.9% (total TP=7.6%) (p ≤ 0.05); Nine socioeconomic variables were explored, of which five (wooden wall of the house, proximity to the neighborhood, proximity to the international highway, home ownership and health perception) were statistically associated with stone mining activity with a significance value statistic of (p ≤ 0.05). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Mining activities had an impact on ESRA associated with the proximity and conditions of housing and also influenced negative perceptions of health and the environment.</p> 2022-12-06T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Blanca Eneida Mazariegos García, Gerardo Alberto González Figueroa, Verónica Gutiérrez Villalpando, Guadalupe del Carmen Álvarez Gordillo, Ernesto Benito Salvatierra Izabá Social water management issues related to six Costa Rican indigene communities (2019-2020) 2022-07-05T13:37:55-06:00 Luz María Chacón Jiménez Ana Lucía Mora González <p><strong>Objective</strong>: to provide a better understanding of the problems associated with the social management of water in six indigenous communities based on qualitative and quantitative data obtained during the 2020-2021 period. <strong>Methodology</strong>: a mixed and exploratory research was carried out in which qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. The qualitative data is the result of the workshops carried out within the framework of the research project B9314 “Social management of water in indigenous territories from Visual Sociology. Selected cases in the provinces of Puntarenas and Limón”; while water analyzes are quantitative results obtained from water quality analyses conduct in key spots identified by the community. <strong>Results</strong>: The analyzes carried out showed that 13 of the 15 water samples collected presented fecal contamination, of predominantly animal origin, however, contamination of anthropic origin was also observed. The workshops carried out in the community indicate that this contamination can be associated with a combination of environmental degradation factors, probably related to the usurpation of land by non-indigenous people, deforestation, population growth, pollution and the lack of effective protection policies. of water sources, both within the territories and at the institutional level, which is aggravated due to the limited effective action of the Costa Rican Institute of Aqueducts and Sewers to carry out actions to supply water for human consumption in the case studies. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: The problems associated with the social management of water in the communities under study are of a multicausal nature and for this reason require multidisciplinary training and support processes to improve the quality of life of indigenous populations.</p> 2022-12-08T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Luz María Chacón Jiménez Association between tobacco and alcohol consumption in women aged 15 to 49 in Costa Rica, according to the results of the Survey of Women, Children and Adolescents, 2018 2022-08-30T08:09:12-06:00 Daniela Gómez González Romain Fantin Cindy Valverde Manzanares Tatiana Gamboa Gamboa Stephanie Arias Jiménez Jorge Daniel Carrillo Barrantes <p>This article analyses the association between consumption of tobacco and alcohol among Costa Rican women ages 15 to 49. A National Women, Children, and Adolescents Survey was disseminated across Costa Rica in 2018 (n = 7,487). The percentages of women who consumed tobacco and alcoholic beverages were calculated by age, socio-economic indicators, and civil status. A logistic regression design was used to analyze the relationship between tobacco and alcoholic beverages consumption. The relationship between tobacco and alcohol consumption was confirmed. Women who consumed alcohol four times or more in the past month had a higher prevalence of tobacco use (OR = 18.80 [11.25-31.41]). On the other hand, women who smoke had a lower prevalence of alcohol consumption (OR = 4.09 [2.67-6.26]) than women who smoke occasionally (OR = 8.86 [4.83-16.24]). There is an association between tobacco consumption and alcohol consumption in women between 15 and 49 years old. This relationship is present with greater force in young, single women and residents of urban areas.</p> 2022-12-08T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Daniela Gómez González, Cindy Valverde Manzanares, Tatiana Gamboa Gamboa, Stephanie Arias Jiménez, Jorge Daniel Carrillo Barrantes Risk factors for hearing loss associated with hearing alterations in neonates admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Dr. Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia, San José, Costa Rica, 2018-2019 2022-07-22T18:04:10-06:00 Amanda María Narváez Mary Cruz Pacheco Calderón Óscar Centeno Mora <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In Costa Rica, approximately half of the children born annually have risk factors for hearing loss, generating hearing loss of various etiologies that can manifest before, during or after birth. This leads to altered results in neonatal hearing screening tests, such as otoacoustic emissions and automated auditory evoked potentials. <strong>Objective:</strong> it was proposed to determine the relationship between risk factors for hearing loss and hearing disorders in neonates, based on ICU admission references and the TANU database, between 2018 and 2019, at the Dr. Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia. <strong>Methodology:</strong> the research adopted a quantitative approach. Measures of central tendency and dispersion, tests of independence and Pearson's correlation, and a logistic regression model were performed. <strong>Results:</strong> there is a relationship between risk factors for hearing loss and auditory alterations in screening. Significant factors were found such as anoxia, intrauterine infections, syndromes, malformations associated with hearing loss, ototoxics, stay in the ICU greater than five days, weight less than 1500 g, age in days and intrauterine infections, which predict results of "refer" in screening tests. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> on the one hand, to carry out an audiological follow-up to neonates who present risk factors for hearing loss, and, on the other hand, to implement improvements in regard to the management of antecedents and hearing tests performed on neonates.</p> 2022-12-08T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Amanda María Narváez, Mary Cruz Pacheco Calderón, Óscar Centeno Mora Occupational accident due to exposure to biological material in the nurses 2022-09-28T10:48:22-06:00 Francisco Rosemiro Guimarães Ximenes Neto Rosemiro Suênia Évelyn Simplício Teixeira Francisco Diogenes dos Santos Luciano Garcia Lourenção Francisco Wellington Dourado Júnior Sandra Maria Carneiro Flor Eliany Nazaré Oliveira Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm Cunha Maria Helena Machado <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe the epidemiology of occupational accidents with exposure to biological material among nurses. <strong>Method:</strong> Epidemiological, descriptive and retrospective study, involving 102 cases of occupational accidents among nurses. <strong>Results:</strong> There was a predominance of females (77.4 %); 20 to 29 years of age (58.8 %); and brown skin color (53.9 %). Most of the workers had a work registration (64.7 %). In 68.2% of the cases, the circumstance of the accident was percutaneous exposure and, in 71.5%, by organic material - blood; the main agent was the lumen needle (66.6 %); 44.1 % were wearing gloves and 35.9 % were wearing masks at the time of the accident; (43.2 %) had the case evolution field filled in as ignored/white. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Accidents are mostly the result of daily practice actions, such as punctures, although these professionals use protective equipment. Therefore, continuing education on safety at work, coupled with awareness about the relevance of notification is a challenge for the exercise of a safe practice.</p> 2022-12-08T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Francisco Rosemiro Guimarães Ximenes Neto Rosemiro, Suênia Évelyn Simplício Teixeira, Francisco Diogenes dos Santos, Luciano Garcia Lourenção , Francisco Wellington Dourado Júnior, Sandra Maria Carneiro Flor, Eliany Nazaré Oliveira, Isabel Cristina Kowal Olm Cunha, Maria Helena Machado Studies on covid-19 and health reflections in vulnerable territories and in favels: a systematic review 2022-07-15T08:58:41-06:00 Graciane Oliveira Costa José André Villas Boas Mello <p>The covid-19 pandemic has had various social impacts globally, however, the favelas and their communities are considered groups with greater vulnerability. In the absence of basic sanitation, precarious residences, low income or poverty, and unemployment are factors that differ in the impacts generated by covid-19 on this specific public, compared to other localities. I have these parameters established as of great concern, determined the question that is the focus of this research: What is being produced by researchers on the subject of COVID-19 in vulnerable territories and in favelas? In order to answer the research question and considering that there have been no studies that address this issue from a systematic review, this article aims to analyze the scientific production in journals indexed in the Web of Science collection on COVID-19 and favelas. As results, it is highlighted the amount of studies produced in India and in Brazil, despite few cited, and that the co-occurrence map allows to focus on the potential of the receptivity of thematic studies on populations and their local reality of vulnerability.</p> 2022-12-08T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Graciane Oliveira Costa, José André Villas Boas Mello Methodology for Group Bonding Nutritional Counseling 2021-09-27T07:16:59-06:00 Nadia Alvarado Molina Ivannia Ureña Retana Indira deBeausset Stanton <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> This essay presents the methodology for Group Bonding Nutritional Counseling (GBNC), which has been developed at the School of Nutrition at the University of Costa Rica in recent decades. In relation to GBNC, the objectives are: 1) To present the epistemological foundations; 2) To show the methodology on how to develop the group bonding nutritional counseling; and 3) To describe the desirable soft skills for the facilitator in a group bonding nutritional counseling process. GBNC’s conceptual approach is centered on the patient as a person exercising their autonomy and agency over their life, and how GBNC helps in the resolution of obstacles for better treatment adherence. GBNC´s methodological approach is based on Pichon-Rivière’s operative groups which was adapted for nutritional counseling. <strong>Proposition:</strong> GBNC goes beyond group interactive nutrition education and includes all the steps to nutritional care, including individual follow ups. GBNC’s methodology has robust theoretical background, as well as adequate settings for its implementation, evaluation, and use. <strong>Arguments for discussion:</strong> For the past decades, the School of Nutrition at the University of Costa Rica has developed the methodological framework for GBNC: from its theory foundation, useful soft skills for the facilitator to conduct, guide and support groups to focus on the task, and proficiently to handle the vectors of group dynamics. GBNC is useful for people to work on improving their health as it allows them to face daily barriers they encounter. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> GBNC has great methodological potential for group support in the treatment of adults with chronic diseases; it is inexpensive and improves time management and human resources in nutritional care. In addition, it allows patients to exercise their autonomy, agency, and problem-solving skills in a safe space, within the containment of the group and the nutritionist.</p> 2022-12-08T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nadia Alvarado Molina, Ivannia Ureña Retana, Indira deBeausset Stanton