Población y Salud en Mesoamérica https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm <p><strong>Población y Salud en Mesoamérica&nbsp;</strong>is an&nbsp;academic&nbsp;electronic&nbsp;journal, published biannually by the Centro Centroamericano de Población&nbsp;and whose publisher is the University of Costa Rica. The <strong>main objective</strong> of this publication is the dissemination of research on population from demographic perspective, and public health. This journal is <a href="https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/about">registered and indexed</a> in important international indexes. E-mail contact: <a href="mailto:revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr">revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr</a></p> <p><strong>URL OAI-PMH:</strong> <a href="/index.php/psm/oai">https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/oai</a></p> Universidad de Costa Rica en-US Población y Salud en Mesoamérica 1659-0201 <p>Población y Salud en Mesoamérica is a free and open access electronic journal. <strong>The content of this site is protected under Creative Commons license</strong>. It allows you to open, download, print, distribute and establish links to the articles contained in this publication, as long as our journal is acknowledged, including the name and domain (http://ccp.ucr.ac.cr/revista/).</p> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /></p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p> </p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p> </p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p> </p> <p>The CCP is a research center that has limited resources obtained from the University of Costa Rica and external inputs for projects like this post. Public recognition to the use of this site can help fundraising for future development.</p> <p>If you or your organization is interested in providing support for the future development of this site, you may be contacted by writing to: <a href="https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/management/settings/distribution/mailto:revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr">revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr</a></p> <p>Thank you for your interest in Population and Health in Middle America</p> Seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-Cov-2 among adults from a municipality in the Buenos Aires suburbs, República Argentina https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/53436 <p>The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-bodies against SARS-CoV-2. Between November twenty-one and December twelve of two thousand and twenty year, a cross-sectional study was carried out in 1182 samples from residents of a Buenos Aires town in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. IgG was measured by ELISA in samples obtained by acupressure. The global prevalence was 12.2 % (n = 144; 95 % CI: 10.3 - 14.0) with a ratio of 1: 3.8, between cumulative incidence and observational values. Prevalence in women and men were 13.0 % (95 % CI: 10.2 - 15.7) and 10.5 % (95 % CI: 7.6 - 13.3), respectively (p = 0.21). By age, the observed values were: 17.8 % (95 % CI: 12.0 - 23.6) in 18 and 30 years old group; 12.2 % (95 % CI: 9.3 - 15.1) in 31 to 60 years old group, 9.9 % (95 % CI: 6.9 - 13.9) in people over 61 years old (p = 0.02). According the socioeconomic tertiles (for Unsatisfied Basic Needs) the prevalence values were 7.7 % (95 % CI: 4.7 - 10.7) for Tertile I (best tertile), 12.5 % (95 % CI: 8.7 - 16.4) for Tertile II, and 15.2 % (95 % CI: 11.6 - 18.8) for Tertile III (p = 0.002). There were also differences between the neighbourhoods and between self-reported clinical variables. Specific IgM antibodies were detected in 12 samples, which represented 1% of the total. Seroprevalence studies provide useful information that can be apllied to fit modeling.</p> Ezequiel Consiglio Carlos Freytes Leandro Facal María José Dus Santos Magdalena Radgtky Caffera Marina Mozgovoj Iris Celeste Robledo Marcela Pilloff Adriana Fernandez Souto Juan Pedrosa Copyright (c) 2023 Ezequiel Consiglio, Carlos Freytes, Leandro Facal, María José Dus Santos, Magdalena Radgty Caffera, Marina Mozgovoj, Iris Celeste Robledo, Marcela Pilloff, Adriana Fernandez Souto, Juan Pedrosa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.53436 COVID-Inconfidentes - SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in two Brazilian urban areas in the fourth quarter 2020: study protocol and initial results https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/53127 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To describe study protocol and initial results of research project COVID-Inconfidentes. <strong>Method:</strong> This paper described the methodological procedures adopted and the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the population. A household survey was conducted between October and December 2020, in two historic cities of Brazil's mining region. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was detected using the Wondfo® rapid test. The face-to-face interview consisted of administration of a questionnaire containing registration data, sociodemographic and economic variables, living habits, general health condition, mental health, sleep habits, and eating and nutrition. <strong>Results: </strong>We evaluated 1,762 residents, of which 764 (43.4 %) were in Mariana and 998 (56.6 %) in Ouro Preto. For both cities, 51.9 % of the interviewees were female, with a predominance of the age range 35 to 59 years old (47.2 %). The prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection was 5.5 % in both cities, 6.2 % in Ouro Preto, and 4.7 % in Mariana (p-value &gt; 0.05). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study was effective to estimate the seroprevalence of infection by the virus and its findings will enable further analyses of the health conditions of the population related to social isolation and the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2.</p> Adriana Lúcia Meireles Luciano Garcia Lourenção Luiz Antônio Alves de Menezes-Júnior Hillary Nascimento Coletro Irene Carolina Sousa Justiniano Samara Silva de Moura Amanda Popolino Diniz Thaís da Silva Sabião Ana Maria Sampaio Rocha Aline Priscila Batista Nara Nunes Lage Bárbara dos Santos Simões Carolina Ali Santos Raquel de Deus Mendonça Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade Keila Furbino Barbosa Cássio Zumerle Masioli Júlia Cristina Cardoso Carraro Mariana Carvalho de Menezes Renata Cristina Rezende Macedo Nascimento Leonardo Roever Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa George Luiz Lins Machado Coelho Copyright (c) 2023 Adriana Lúcia Meireles, Luciano Garcia Lourenção, Luiz Antônio Alves de Menezes-Júnior, Hillary Nascimento Coletro, Irene Carolina Sousa Justiniano, Samara Silva de Moura, Amanda Popolino Diniz, Thaís da Silva Sabião, Ana Maria Sampaio Rocha, Aline Priscila Batista, Nara Nunes Lage, Bárbara dos Santos Simões, Carolina Ali Santos, Raquel de Deus Mendonça, Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade, Keila Furbino Barbosa, Cássio Zumerle Masioli , Júlia Cristina Cardoso Carraro, Mariana Carvalho de Menezes , Renata Cristina Rezende Macedo Nascimento , Leonardo Roever, Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa , George Luiz Lins Machado-Coelho https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.53127 Epidemiological and conjunctural characterization of violence in Brazil from 2011 to 2020 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/52900 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Violence is a complex phenomenon that affects individuals of different genders, ages, ethnicities and social classes, being considered an important public health problem in Brazil and in the world. <strong>Methodology</strong>: Study with a quantitative, epidemiological and analytical approach, whose objective was to characterize the main indicators and the way they are associated with violence in Brazil according to their forms, means and circumstances of occurrence, from 2011 to 2020. A dendrogram was produced through the combined application of Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering techniques, characterizing the main profiles associated with violence in Brazil. <strong>Results</strong>: Violence is established as a complex and multicausal phenomenon, which results not only in high public expenditures, but mainly in the reduction of social cohesion due to the immeasurable damage caused to the population involved. In the present study, the violence is mostly of the physical type, affecting adult females, with low schooling and white or brown. Recurrence occurs mainly when the violence is psychological and sexual. As for the aggressor, they are usually adults, male, and the use of alcohol is common. An important participation of the Southeast region was observed in the notifications of all forms of violence. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: The magnitude and severity of the problem is brought into question, which must be investigated regionally and in a segmented manner, according to the type of violence. Thus, it infers that spending on violence prevention can mitigate economic, social and psychological problems in Brazil.</p> Marcos Vinicius Teixeira Martins Veronica Perius de Brito Alice Mirane Malta Carrijo Stefan Vilges de Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 Marcos Vinicius Teixeira Martins, Veronica Perius de Brito, Alice Mirane Malta Carrijo, Stefan Vilges de Oliveira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.52900 Gender inequality, and adolescent fatherhood in two indigenous communities in Chiapas, Mexico https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/55437 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Teenage paternity has been considered an important social problem that has been recently studied from the sociocultural construction of masculinities and gender inequality. This work contributes to documenting the experience of adolescent fatherhood in two Ch'ol and Tseltal indigenous rural communities in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. <strong>Methodology:</strong> The study was conducted through a qualitative approach, the data collection technique consisted of semi-structured interviews and the selection of participants was through the linear snowball technique. Twenty-five complete interviews were carried out in two stages, 13 in each locality, of which 16 were with children under 20 years of age who were fathers and mothers in adolescence, five with men between 24 and 40 years old, and four with men aged 50 and over. <strong>Results:</strong> Adolescent fatherhood is associated with the construction of masculinities, supported by traditional sociocultural norms such as payment for the bride, polygyny, and the traffic of women. Teenage pregnancy is associated with the importance of fatherhood for men despite the resistance of women to unite and get pregnant early. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> There are some conditions that facilitate the occurrence of adolescent fatherhood, but not as an individual, isolated phenomenon, but rather in the context of (economic) production, family structures and the subordination of women, which have remained despite some generational social changes.</p> Ezequiel Vázquez-Solís Austreberta Nazar-Beutelspacher Dulce Karol Ramírez-López Ernesto Benito Salvatierra-Izaba Erín Ingrid Jane Estrada-Lugo Copyright (c) 2023 Ezequiel Vázquez-Solís, Austreberta Nazar-Beutelspacher, Dulce Karol Ramírez-López, Ernesto Benito Salvatierra-Izaba, Erín Ingrid Jane Estrada-Lugo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.55437 Social determinants of Chagas disease in Costa Rica https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/53024 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Among the main diseases associated with the social determinants of health, lifestyles and healthy environments, is Chagas disease, which is linked to poverty and infrastructures whose conditions promote the permanence of the vector. Therefore, the objective of this article was to carry out an exploratory ecological analysis of the social determinants of health related to the prevention and control of Chagas disease, for the generation of relevant epidemiological knowledge and the formulation of public policy guidelines, which help to improve the approach to this public health problem and fulfill the national commitment to eliminate this neglected disease. <strong>Methodology:</strong> an ecological and geographical study was designed considering social determinants to the prevention and the regulation of the Chagas disease. To this end, this study is based on primary data by the Ministerio de Salud (MINSA) and the Instituto de Estadística y Censos (INEC), the information was analyzed by generating maps using GIS, in addition to a negative binomial linear regression and a spatial neighborhood analysis by calculating the Moran Index. <strong>Results:</strong> From the sample analyzes, it can be drawn that the most influential factors regarding the contagion rate for Chagas disease are the percentage of canton-level urban slums, the percentage of poor homes, and the percentage goods and services missing. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The results obtained imply a relationship between Chagas disease and the social determinants of health, especially linked to inequity and inequality, which is why this document proposes public policy guidelines that allow the recording of information related to social determinants of health. that facilitate the surveillance of the disease and that lead to the identification or elimination of a possible underreporting of cases derived from the lack of analysis of indicators of social determinants of health.</p> Ana Maria Ramirez Solano Español Español Copyright (c) 2023 Ana Maria Ramirez Solano, Horacio Alejandro Chamizo García https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.53024 Factors associated with life satisfaction in Costa Rican residents aged 60 and over https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/53808 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Satisfaction with life is an important indicator of the quality of life of the elderly. The purpose of the study was to identify factors associated with life satisfaction in Costa Rican residents aged 60 and over. <strong>Methods:</strong> Information from a cross-sectional sample that includes 2032 participating in Costa Rica: Longevity and Healthy Aging Study was analyzed. A logistic regression model was estimated and the effect of sociodemographic variables, health status, economic situation, and support on life satisfaction was determined. <strong>Results:</strong> Life satisfaction is associated with having a partner, insomnia, the presence of more than one disability in activities of daily living, self-rated health, and the perception of the economic situation. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Identifying factors that influence life satisfaction in people aged 60 or over, could contribute elements in the issue of generating policies aimed at establishing actions that allow improving the quality of life of this population.</p> Eduardo Aguilar Fernández Ana Maricela Carballo-Alfaro Copyright (c) 2023 Eduardo Aguilar Fernández, Ana Maricela Carballo-Alfaro https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.53808 Covid-19 and social isolation: the mental health of higher education students https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/53560 <p>The objective was to analyze the relationship between the teaching-learning process and the mental health of higher education students in Ceará State, Brazil, during social isolation caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. An exploratory, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was conducted with 3,691 university students in 2020. The variables concerned with the continuity of the course in person, internet access conditions, and satisfaction regarding participation in pedagogical activities during isolation were analyzed. There were positive (r&gt;0) and statistically significant (p&lt;0.001) relationships between the MHI-38 Global Scale, the Positive well-being and Distress dimensions, the primary dimensions, and better internet access conditions and satisfaction with the pedagogical activities of the institution. On the other hand, negative (r&lt;0) and statistically significant (p&lt;0.001) relationships were found between the assessed dimensions and the concern with continuing the course in person. The primary dimensions tended to increase with increasing satisfaction with pedagogical activities and internet access conditions. On the other hand, the primary dimensions decreased with the increase in the concern with the continuity of the in-person course. The results suggest that the change in the teaching-learning model significantly impacted the students' mental health and that better conditions of access to activities tend to optimize the picture, while the intense scenario of concern makes the psychic illness more expressive. Therefore, it is up to the institutions to create and strengthen mental health policies for students.</p> Eliany Nazaré Oliveira Emília Nascimento Silva Leticia Mara Cavalcante Lima Isabelly Oliveira Ferreira Caio San Rodrigues Gleisson Ferreira Lima Ravena Silva do Nascimento Lídia Cristina Monteiro da Silva Francisco Rosemiro Guimarães Ximenes Neto Copyright (c) 2023 Eliany Nazaré Oliveira, Emília Nascimento Silva, Leticia Mara Cavalcante Lima, Isabelly Oliveira Ferreira, Caio San Rodrigues, Gleisson Ferreira Lima , Ravena Silva do Nascimento, Lídia Cristina Monteiro da Silva, Francisco Rosemiro Guimarães Ximenes Neto https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.53560 Sociocultural factors influencing breastfeeding practice and maternal feeding in a semi-urban community in Mexico https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/52851 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To analyze the sociocultural factors that influence the practice of breastfeeding and maternal nutrition. <strong>Method:</strong> It is a qualitative exploratory study, with non-probabilistic sampling using the snowball technique, in women aged 18 to 50 years, conducting a semi-structured interview with prior signature of informed consent. <strong>Results:</strong> Twenty-one women in the last trimester of pregnancy or breastfeeding were interviewed, 12 first-time mothers and 9 non-first-time mothers; most of them with an age range of 20 to 29 years. The sociocultural categories identified about breastfeeding beliefs and breastfeeding practice were emotion, knowledge, attachment, difficulty, inequality; they referred that breastfeeding is a unique experience that creates a mother-child bond, which provides security and protection to their children. In addition, myths/beliefs about maternal feeding were identified, such as the use of beverages that favor milk production. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The environment in which mothers find themselves is determinant for the initiation, duration and success of breastfeeding, hence the importance of knowing the mothers' point of view. Breastfeeding can be influenced by cultural discourses or practices that sometimes turn out to be contradictory, some of them lacking scientific foundations, so it is important to continue carrying out this type of studies, where it is possible to determine in depth what are the difficulties or obstacles that arise in order to carry out a good promotion and encouragement of breastfeeding.</p> Perla Patricia Romero Morales María Guadalupe Zúñiga Torres Marcela Sánchez-Delgado Copyright (c) 2023 Perla Patricia Romero Morales, María Guadalupe Zúñiga Torres, Marcela Sánchez-Delgado https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.52851 Muscle strength: development of predictive equation for handgrip strength in older adults on the primary health care https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/54126 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Monitoring the functional capacity of older adults is fundamental, and Handgrip Strength (HGS) is a consolidated marker of functional status in this age group. This study aimed to develop equations for predicting HGS in community-dwelling older adults in Primary Health Care (PHC). <strong>Methods:</strong> It is a cross-sectional study conducted with 316 older adults, in which a Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was performed for the right hand (R-HGS) and left hand (L-HGS). The variables sex, age, weight, knee height (KH), arm circumference (AC), triceps skinfold (TSF), and calf circumference (CC) were considered predictors because they were easily obtained in PHC and significantly related to HGS. <strong>Results:</strong> In the final models, the variables sex, age, and KH together explained more than 50 % of the HGS variation. There was agreement between the estimated and measured HGS measurements, both for right and left side.<strong> Conclusions</strong>: It is concluded that the variability of HGS can be explained by age, sex, and KH, which are parameters simple and routinely used to evaluate older adults.</p> Maria Luiza Amorim Sena Pereira Marília Conceição de Souza Caceres Marlus Henrique Queiroz Pereira Carolina Cunha de Oliveira Bruno Klécius Andrade Teles Elizabete Regina Araújo de Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Luiza Amorim Sena Pereira, Marília Conceição de Souza Caceres, Marlus Henrique Queiroz Pereira, Carolina Cunha de Oliveira, Bruno Klécius Andrade Teles, Elizabete Regina Araújo de Oliveira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.54126 Level of child development in children under six years of age assessed with the EDIN-II screening test in Costa Rica https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/53285 <p>Introduction: The General Test for the Evaluation of the Integral Development of the Child (EDIN-II) created and validated in Costa Rica, classifies the child population with normal or age-appropriate development (green), with a developmental lag (yellow), or else, with a risk of significant delay (red). However, the results of its application at the population level are not known. The aim of this article is to report the level of development of the infants evaluated during the validation processes of the EDIN-II test. Methodology: A secondary analysis of descriptive and correlational scope is carried out; the EDIN-II test was applied by nursing professionals, during the years 2016 - 2020. A total of 438 children aged 1 to 72 months in different zones of the metropolitan area of the country. Results: 78.5 % (n= 344) have an adequate development for their age and 21.5 % (n= 94) present a delay or risk of delay in their development. Conclusions: The prevalence of risk of developmental delay was 21.5%, with a higher proportion between 12 and 36 months of life.</p> Ana María Quezada Ugalde Melisa Edith Valverde-Hernández Sunny González-Serrano Copyright (c) 2023 Ana María Quezada Ugalde, Melisa Edith Valverde-Hernández, Sunny González-Serrano https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.53285 Child mortality and infant mortality in Catalonia (1700-1860) https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/55521 <p>There are very few studies on infant mortality in Catalonia. That is why is intended to study infant mortality (deaths under 12 years of age) and infant mortality (under 1 year of age) based on a systematic collection of mortality data from 243 parish series of baptisms and deaths in Catalonia between 1700 and 1860. The study is quantitative and territorialised to explore differential mortality. The result is that this type of mortality was particularly high in the second half of the 18th century and began to decline in the first half of the 19th century. It is also concluded that it was less intense in the smaller towns and that the reduction was more pronounced in the coastal towns. Finally, an approach is made to the evolution of infant mortality (0 to 1 years) in Catalonia, which corroborates the data on infant mortality.</p> Llorenç Ferrer-Alós Copyright (c) 2023 Llorenç Ferrer-Alós https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.55521 Prescription of psychotropic drugs to women in situations of violence: perspectives of professionals in support services in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/54125 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: several sources confirm the overrepresentation of women in the consumption of psychotropic drugs, as well as specific differences in the patterns of prescription to women who experience violence. This is a public health issue that deserves an interdisciplinary analysis that integrates the gender approach. <strong>Objective</strong>: to explore the perspective of institutional officials regarding the prescription of psychotropic drugs to women treated for situations of violence. <strong>Methodology</strong>: an exploratory-descriptive study was developed based on qualitative research methods that integrated documentary sources and consultation with experts through the semi-structured interview technique. <strong>Results</strong>: the use of antidepressants and anxiolytics is frequent in this population, whose main routes of access are prescription at the first level of health care and self-medication. There are various nuances about the role of psychotropic drugs in the critical path of women affected by violence, but there is a consensus that this should be only one of the possible health interventions. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: the findings suggest that in addressing the impact of violence against women by the sector, a traditional paradigm prevails, whose main response is pharmacological intervention. Gender-based violence must be considered within the social determinants of mental health, recognizing the risks posed by its medicalization.</p> Adriana Rodríguez Fernández Copyright (c) 2023 Adriana Rodríguez Fernández https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.54125 “Raise as if we were not working and work as if we were not having children” reflections on the labor integration of migrant mothers raising in Chile https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/52797 <p>The childrearing practices deployed by migrant mothers are influenced by the precariousness of their subsistence spaces, as well as the mothers´ knowledge and experiences. From the theoretical assumptions of intersectionality that reveals the imbricated networks based on gender, ethnicity-race and class that establish relations of inequality between social superstructures and mothers-migrants, it is proposed to respond to the general objective of analyzing the influence of precariousness work of migrant mothers in raising their sons and daughters in Chile. From a Latin American perspective, it is hoped to open the discussion regarding a local phenomenon as a manifestation of situated knowledge and, in turn, make visible the discrimination, subordination and submission of migrant women mothers, which explains the general dismissal of their vulnerable integration into the country and in which the upbringing of their sons and daughters take place. Through a qualitative methodology based on symbolic interactionism, 39 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Venezuelan, Peruvian and Haitian migrant mothers, which were subjected to thematic analysis and theorized according to the defined research objectives. As a result, it is obtained that migrant mothers tend to access precarious and informal jobs against which they deploy different strategies that range from job abandonment, renouncing their maternity rights, acceptance of double presence and the formation of chains. care packages to make the childrearing compatible with work. The conclusions show that the labor integration of migrant mothers in Chile outlines the practices of childrearing from a permanent negotiation between subsistence, the maintenance of ties and their cultural heritage, where the dimensions of gender, race and class outline the intensity of these transactions that make manifest the social location of subalternity of migrant mothers, and that is intensified in the case of Haitian mothers since the greater representation of otherness is embodied in them.</p> Lucia Odette Castillo Copyright (c) 2023 Lucia Odette Castillo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.52797 Building a culture of peace in northern Mexico: the case of the Mantente REAL prevention program https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/54096 <p>For decades, Mexico's northern border has been the center of national and international attention for the level of violence generated by organized crime, human trafficking and illicit activities linked to drug trafficking. Due to the economic and social impact of insecurity and violence, there is a need to develop educational actions that promote the construction of a culture of security and peace among adolescents. This study analyzes the role of <em>Mantente REAL</em> in the construction of norms and values that promote inclusive school relationships, conflict resolution, values oriented to selfcare, and the common good among students. <strong>Methodology:</strong> This study analyzes qualitative information that was collected in 2018 in the context of the implementation of the substance use prevention program Mantente REAL. Information from 10 focus groups with students (n=8) and teachers (n=2) who participated in the program was analyzed. <strong>Result: </strong>Findings indicate that learning life skills, and using the strategies of the acronym REAL -Refuse, Explain, Avoid and Leave- foster peace and citizenship students participating in the program. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Participants engaged in individual and collective efforts to prevent problems such as substance use, bullying and other forms of violence. Recommendations highlight the need to investigate further the potential benefits of implementing school-based interventions with multiple outcomes.</p> María Hilda García-Pérez Flavio F. Marsiglia Stephen Kulis Copyright (c) 2023 María Hilda García-Pérez, Flavio F. Marsiglia, Stephen Kulis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.54096 Costa Rican households of the 20th and 21st centuries: socioeconomic context and public policies https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/53679 <p>This article aims to reconstruct the socioeconomic context and public policies around Costa Rican households during the 20th and 21st centuries through primary and secondary sources: laws, national development plans, and bibliographic documents. For this, the different documents were carefully read, identifying the use of the keywords home, homes, family, families, and household heads, in their context and relationship with the text. The change in the economic model, in the form and objectives of the State, implied a process of impoverishment. During the 1990s, this impoverishment tried to be counteracted through reforms to the essential macro components of the country, for example, the health sector reform, while households developed strategies to survive, one of them being the desertion of the educational system, especially from high school. Public policies, from actions with a demographic approach, show interest in studying changes in fertility and the various related aspects. The laws analyzed show the search to help the poorest households; However, they implied a biased view of their protection, as the members were considered the most vulnerable: infants, adolescents, and women, who sought to be protected. In the national development plans, the concern revolved around households in poverty, headed by women and in rural areas of the country.</p> Natalia Carballo Murillo Copyright (c) 2023 Natalia Carballo Murillo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 10.15517/psm.v21i1.53679