Población y Salud en Mesoamérica https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm <p>Población y Salud en Mesoamérica&nbsp;is an&nbsp;academic&nbsp;electronic&nbsp;journal, published biannually by the Centro Centroamericano de Población&nbsp;and whose publisher is the University of Costa Rica. The main objective of this publication is the dissemination of research on population from demographic perspective, and public health. This journal is <a href="https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/about">registered and indexed</a> in important international indexes. E-mail: <a href="mailto:revista@ccp.ucr.ac.cr">revista@ccp.ucr.ac.cr</a></p> <p><strong>URL OAI-PMH:</strong> <a href="/index.php/psm/oai">https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/oai</a></p> Universidad de Costa Rica en-US Población y Salud en Mesoamérica 1659-0201 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Población y Salud en Mesoamérica is a free and open access electronic journal. <strong>The content of this site is protected under Creative Commons license</strong>. It allows you to open, download, print, distribute and establish links to the articles contained in this publication, as long as our journal is acknowledged, including the name and domain (http://ccp.ucr.ac.cr/revista/).</p> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The CCP is a research center that has limited resources obtained from the University of Costa Rica and external inputs for projects like this post. Public recognition to the use of this site can help fundraising for future development.</p> <p>If you or your organization is interested in providing support for the future development of this site, you may be contacted by writing to: <a href="mailto:revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr">revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr</a></p> <p>Thank you for your interest in Population and Health in Middle America</p> Statistical control charts to assess the incidence of presumably infectious diarrhea reported between 2009 and 2019 in children under 4 years of age in the macro regions of Araçatuba, Marília and Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/47011 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the monthly rates of hospitalizations for childhood diarrhea in macro-regions of Araçatuba, Marília and Presidente Prudente, SP, between 2019 -June Between June 2009<strong>. Methods:</strong> The average rates and their standard deviations for admission of diarrhea in the target population were obtained from DATASUS and standardized for cases x 100,000 inhabitants. Confidence limits were established, occurrences above confidence limits were considered epidemic events. The normality of the data and serial autocorrelation were tested using the Shapiro-Wilk and Durbin-Watson method. <strong>Results:</strong> All methods detected epidemic occurrences in the three regions. Araçatuba and Marília, the peaks were concentrated in the first half of the decade and Presidente Prudente, close to the middle. The CUSUM method was more sensitive to detect epidemic periods, however the normality data and assumptions have been violated by serial autocorrelation in a few months. The EWMA method was considered the most appropriate. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Statistical process control charts can be used to monitor and compare disease incidence between different regions.</p> Suelen Navas-Úbida Rogério Giuffrida ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 10.15517/psm.v19i2.47011 Interrelationships between the meaning of life, physical activity, social support network, age, and gender in older adults https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/47112 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Older adults attending daycare centers are in an environment in which different variables are interrelated and could shape their meaning of life, among other aspects. <strong>Objective:</strong> To analyze the associations between the meaning of life, physical activity, social support network, age, and gender in seven-day centers in the province of Heredia, Costa Rica. <strong>Methodology:</strong> This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. Seventy-seven older adults were recruited from seven-day centers. The variables investigated were the meaning of life, physical activity, social support network, age, and gender. Self-reports were collected and researchers clarified any doubts. <strong>Results:</strong> 46% of the participants reported a meaningless life and 36% low levels of physical activity. Significant associations were found between social support network and meaning of life (<em>b</em> = .91; <em>p</em> &lt;.001), age and social support network (<em>b</em> = .30 <em>p</em> = .048), and social support and female gender (<em>b</em> = -6.08, <em>p</em> = .010). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The social support network is a predictor of the meaning of life and age and gender predict the social support network, but not the physical activity reported in the variables investigated.</p> Diego Rodríguez-Méndez Luis Solano-Mora María Antonieta Corrales-Araya Edgar Murillo-Campos Brynel Cortés-Gómez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 10.15517/psm.v19i2.47112 Factors associated with self-rated health in Costa Ricans: results for the CRELES retirement cohort https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/44219 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Self-rated health has been considered a subjective measure of general health status. We aim was identified factors associated with self-rated health in the Costa Ricans adult population. <strong>Methods:</strong> a population cross-sectional study with a total of 992 men and 1570 women representing a new retirement cohort participating in the project Costa Rica: Longevity and Healthy Aging Study and referred to as CRELES-RC. Self-rated health was measured through a single question on the assessment of health status that considers five options: excellent, very good, good, fair and poor. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to quantify the contribution of chronic diseases and other factors to poor self-rated health. <strong>Results</strong>: The logistic regression models determined that self-rated health is associated with the area of residence, educational level, perception of the economic situation, physical activity, emotional support and the presence of chronic disease. People with a chronic disease, except cancer, indicate poorer self-rated health. The strongest relationship was with arthritis, lung disease, and diabetes. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> the study allowed to identify that the area of residence, education, physical activity, emotional support and chronic illness could affect people’s health.</p> Eduardo Aguilar Fernández Ana Maricela Carballo-Alfaro ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 10.15517/psm.v19i2.44219 Homicides in children and adolescents in Southeast Mexico, between 2000 and 2017 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/44317 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Mexico is currently facing a context of raising violence that includes the increase of homicides and feminicides in the nation-wide territory. The existent studies present certain gaps regarding regional and age groups information. In particular, those gaps are relevant for population from 0 to 17 years old.&nbsp; That is why this article aims to describe the mortality impacts by means of homicides among that age group in Southeast Mexico. This region is one of the most abandoned in terms of Human Rights and Social Well-Being. <strong>Methodology: </strong>The article uses the general mortality statistics of the National Institute of Statistics and Geography to calculate the gross mortality rates as well as the specific rates by age and sex groups from 2000 to 2017. Likewise, the average years of life lost are calculated. The study is descriptive and analyzes the impact of homicides within the trend of mortality and life expectancy.<strong> Results</strong>: A main result shows to the highest percentage of homicides occur among men. However, in terms of the average number of YLL and for the age group 12 to 17 years the largest increases occur among adolescent women. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The Southeast region of Mexico presents heterogeneous behavior in homicide mortality rates for the age group 0 to 17 years, highlights the validity and increase of lethal violence against girls, boys and particularly adolescents<strong>.</strong></p> Sarai Miranda Juarez Angélica Aremy Evangelista García ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 10.15517/psm.v19i2.44317 Epidemiological aspects of COVID-19 on nursing: a retrospective analysis https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/45253 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To analyze the epidemiological aspects of COVID-19 in Brazilian nursing professionals. <strong>Methodology:</strong> Cross-sectional and quantitative study, based on secondary data in the public domain, from the Nursing Observatory of the Federal Nursing Council. Data were collected in November 2020 and imported into the STATA version 12.0 program. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, with absolute numbers and frequency measures. <strong>Results and discussion</strong>: 38,628 Nursing professionals with suspected COVID-19 were notified, 52.4% with confirmed diagnosis and a predominance of technicians (62.9%). The prevalent age group among deaths was higher (41 to 60 years) than among those infected (31 to 40 years), while the female gender was quantitatively dominant in both, despite the higher lethality rate among men (4.5%). Mortality / 1,000 professionals was high in Amapá, Acre, Mato Grosso and Rondônia. The peak in the daily number of new cases (525) occurred in July 2020, while the number of deaths (18) in September, a month in which there was a downward trend in the variation in the growth rate of the moving average between the new cases, the which is not evident in the variable of the moving average between deaths. This scenario has a strong relationship with the precarious working conditions, lack of PPE, physical and emotional overload and the outcomes of the fast hiring and qualification for the management of patients with COVID-19. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Understanding the situation of vulnerability experienced by these workers in the pandemic context reveals the need to target effective health actions aimed at this group.</p> Veronica Perius de Brito Alice Mirane Malta Carrijo Neyson Pinheiro Freire Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento Stefan Vilges de Oliveira ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 10.15517/psm.v19i2.45253 Prevalence of mutations Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), Prothrombin (II G20210G/G20210A) and Leyden V factor in patients undergoing studies by thrombophilic profile. Hospital San Vicente de Paul. Costa Rica, 2017 to 2018 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/43749 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Genetic alterations associated with a higher or lower risk of thrombotic disease have been reported in recent years, the objective of this study is to understand the prevalence of mutations for methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), Mutation for prothrombin (II G20210G/G20210A) and Mutation for factor V Leyden, in the samples of patients undergoing studies by thrombophilic profile, at the Hospital San Vicente de Paul.&nbsp; <strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp; To carry out this study, we use the database of reference samples of the Hospital San Vicente de Paúl for the study of risk markers for thrombophilia: MTHFR, Ac Lúpico, Mutation of Factor II, Factor V Leyden in the period from April 2017 to April 2018. <strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp; From the analyses requested for thrombophilia study, the frequency in the thrombophilia study request was observed to be higher for female sex, with a frequency of 83.7% of total testing and 16.3% for the male sex. The most prevalent mutation is MTHFR, followed by the Mutation for factor V Leyden, and both mutations occur in greater numbers in women. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>&nbsp;The association of genetic alterations studied with thrombotic events has been shown in several studies so knowing their prevalence in a given population is of great importance to help the clinic arrive at an appropriate diagnosis.</p> Jonielle Garcia Quesada Edgar Hernández Zúñiga Melissa Granados Zamora ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-06-16 2021-06-16 10.15517/psm.v19i2.43749 Confirmatory analysis of a control and pressure when eating questionnaire among mothers of Costa Rican preschoolers https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/45885 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: to analyze the validity of the factorial structure for a questionnaire adapted from the Preschooler Feeding Questionnaire (PFQ) with subscales associated with control and parental pressure when eating. <strong>Methodology</strong>: a questionnaire was prepared with 11 items expressed with “Likert” type scales and grouped into two subscales: “maternal pressure when eating” and “maternal control when eating”. This was evaluated with 50 mothers, subsequently carrying out a factor analysis to identify the underlying factorial structure, evaluating the reliability with Cronbach's α and using a principal components extraction with a Varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization. A confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently performed with 430 mothers. Descriptive statistics studied both “control” and “pressure” parental practices, while an SEM model assessed the existence of causal relationships between BMI, child gender and these practices. <strong>Results</strong>: a factorial structure of two scales was validated, “Control” and “Pressure”, each composed of three items (x<sup>2</sup> = 187.3, df. = 116, x<sup>2</sup> / df. = 1.62, CFI = 0.998, GFI = 0.991, AGFI = 0.983, NFI = 0.994, IFI = 0.998, and RMSEA = 0.018). &nbsp;No causal relationship was established between these factors with the BMI or the gender of the infants, both factors being greater than the average. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: The adaptation of the questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool of future utility in the study of parental nutritional practices.</p> Alejandro Chacón Villalobos ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-06-18 2021-06-18 10.15517/psm.v19i2.45885 Consumption of meat and meat products among students of the University of Costa Rica https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/46174 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>to establish and analyze patterns of consumption of meat and meat products in students of the University of Costa Rica.<strong> Methodology: </strong>a basic study of the profile of the university consumer was carried out using a survey with 499 students (268 women and 231 men, between 16 and 29 years old), evaluating age, biological sex, consumption habits, type of meat preferred and most consumed meat product, reasons for purchase and places where they buy. &nbsp;Chi square evaluations, factorial ANOVAS and descriptive statistical analysis were used as statistical tests.<strong> Results: </strong>poultry is the most consumed meat (96.5%), followed by beef (91.9%). &nbsp;The consumption of meat is a daily habit for 23.2% of the students, while 17.6% consumes it at least 3 times a week. Good taste (84% of the cases) is the main reason for consumption above the nutritional value (51.9%). &nbsp;A majority do not participate in the purchase of meat (52.7%), preferring those who do the supermarkets (45%). The perceived quality is the main criterion for selecting the product, as well as the confidence in the place where they buy. About 87.0% consume sausages regularly, being more usual a frequency of 1 to 2 times a week (49.8%). Wet cured ham (89,0%) and wieners (83,0%) were the most frequently consumed, with no commercial brand predilection in 49.5% of the cases.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>around 96.4% of the students regularly consume meat and derived products, being those who decline mainly vegans. No relationship of these practices with the age and sex was established.</p> Alejandro Chacón Villalobos ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-06-18 2021-06-18 10.15517/psm.v19i2.46174 Infant fertility rate and the gradual non-declaration of parents in Costa Rica (2000-2019) https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/46273 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Child motherhood must be evidenced by the naturalization of this social fact itself, since it is the product of rape. The study of this phenomenon is relevant after the approval of some laws that seek to prevent it. <strong>Objective:</strong> to analyze of the fertility rate in girls between the ages 10 and 14 in Costa Rica (2000-2019) the age of the perpetrators or "parents" within the framework of ideological State apparatuses, social inequality, and a conservative social context.<strong> Method: </strong>The information was processed from the online databases of the <em>Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos</em>. The approach is quantitative, with a correlational and non-experimental study of the population of girls between 10 and 14 years of age throughout the country, as well as for small geographic areas.<strong> Results: </strong>Infant fertility has decreased between 2000 and 2019. The estimated age of pregnancy is at the age of 13. Geographical areas with higher fertility levels are detected, inside and outside the Metropolitan Area. It is statistically evidenced that these have contributed to the increase in undeclared perpetrators considerably after 2016. All this is validated by religious institutions and the media proclaim as positive, despite national and international jurisprudence.<strong> Conclusions: </strong>This information is essential to guide public educational and health promotion policies from the first level of care, which promote the reproductive rights of girls.</p> Eugenio Fuentes Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-06-18 2021-06-18 10.15517/psm.v19i2.46273 Asymmetry between recipients and donors as a health problem. Investigation of family acceptance or refusal to donate organs and tissues https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/46278 <p>The objective of the research was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of family groups involved in decision-making processes about the procurement and donation of organs. A qualitative study was carried out with a descriptive and interpretive design. Fourteen potential donor family groups participated in the study who accepted or opposed the organ donation process. A thematic script was created for the development of interviews with 10 families who accepted and 4 who rejected the donation. The results showed that decisions were made easier when the family had information about the donor's wishes. Those who opposed were unaware of the will and did not have precise communication with potential givers on the matter. Within the family group, mothers assumed a relevant role at the time of the favorable definition. The act of donation carries a positive vision of generosity and altruism, although prejudices and mistrust remains regarding the procedures and transparency of the professionals and institutions that participate. The interviewees had difficulty determining the identity of the person who requested the donation, with marked ignorance of the institutions and norms that regulate this action. The importance of strengthening communication in the population about the importance of organ donation, as well as transparency and institutional trust, is concluded. Dialogue within the family about people's willingness to donate is relevant for making a favorable decision.</p> Ana Cecilia Augsburger Zunila R. Milano María Alejandra Lapalma Gustavo Brufman María Alejandra Rigalli ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2021-06-18 2021-06-18 10.15517/psm.v19i2.46278 COVID-19, Noncommunicable Diseases and Healthy Aging in Mexico https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/47109 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed the current situation of health systems and the health conditions of the population throughout the world. <strong>Objetive.</strong> Analyze the health conditions of the population in Mexico, especially in the 45 to 59 age group, and how non-communicable diseases and age are poor prognostic factors for COVID-19, showing healthy aging as an alternative to rethink public policies. <strong>Arguments for discussion</strong>. The age group from 45 to 59 years is required to be considered as a target group for the coverage of the Guaranteed Package of Health Services, whose actions are applied throughout the sector as preventive medicine actions, since it is currently included in a broader age group, taking into account the increase in mortality associated with age and comorbidity caused by the pandemic. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> Mexico requires a rethinking of the public policy of healthy aging, with the application of strategies and actions throughout the life course, seeking to apply urgent measures from the second half of life, starting at age 45, with secondary prevention actions of non-communicable diseases, since it is from this age and up to 79 years where the highest number of deaths has occurred in Mexico due to COVID-19, thus seeking to face the following pandemics with better health conditions of the population they come forward.</p> Mayra Pérez Rivera Sócrates López Pérez Juan Bacilio Guerrero Escamilla Sonia Bass Zavala ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 10.15517/psm.v19i2.47109 Guidelines for the prevention and control of tuberculosis among indigenous peoples in the Americas región https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/47582 <p>From an intercultural perspective that emphasizes responding appropriately to the needs of indigenous peoples by prioritizing "ways of life, value systems, traditions and cosmovisions" and attempting to reduce inequities associated with health care, the document Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Indigenous Peoples of the Americas integrates specific experiences and strategies not only to guide, in this context, efforts to eradicate tuberculosis among indigenous peoples in the region of the Americas, the document Guidelines for the prevention and control of tuberculosis among indigenous peoples in the Americas integrates specific experiences and strategies not only to guide efforts to eradicate tuberculosis (TB), but also to replicate them in those places where the magnitude of the problem is evidently greater due to the persistence of inequalities in health care.</p> Antonio Reyna Sevilla ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 10.15517/psm.v19i2.47582