Población y Salud en Mesoamérica https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm <p><strong>Población y Salud en Mesoamérica </strong>is an academic electronic journal, published biannually and of continued publication by the Centro Centroamericano de Población and whose publisher is the University of Costa Rica. The <strong>main objective</strong> of this publication is the dissemination of research on population from demographic perspective, and public health. This journal is <a href="https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/about">registered and indexed</a> in important international indexes. E-mail contact: <a href="https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/management/settings/context/mailto:revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr">revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr</a></p> <p><strong>URL OAI-PMH:</strong> <a href="https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/management/settings/context//index.php/psm/oai">https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/oai</a></p> en-US <p>Población y Salud en Mesoamérica is a free and open access electronic journal. <strong>The content of this site is protected under Creative Commons license</strong>. It allows you to open, download, print, distribute and establish links to the articles contained in this publication, as long as our journal is acknowledged, including the name and domain (http://ccp.ucr.ac.cr/revista/).</p> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /></p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p> </p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p> </p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p> </p> <p>The CCP is a research center that has limited resources obtained from the University of Costa Rica and external inputs for projects like this post. Public recognition to the use of this site can help fundraising for future development.</p> <p>If you or your organization is interested in providing support for the future development of this site, you may be contacted by writing to: <a href="https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/management/settings/distribution/mailto:revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr">revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr</a></p> <p>Thank you for your interest in Population and Health in Middle America</p> revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr (Adrián Murillo González) adrian.murillogonzalez@ucr.ac.cr (Adrián Murillo González) Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 -0600 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Global trends to reduce carbon footprint: challenges and opportunities for the Costa Rican health sector https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57743 <p>Introduction: The reduction of carbon footprints across all sectors is a crucial aspect of climate action. The implementation of specific strategies to achieve this goal includes the actions of healthcare services. Costa Rica has been noted for a robust health system with a primary care approach. However, there is a paucity of scientific evidence regarding the roles and impacts of the health sector in reducing the national carbon footprint. Objective: To analyze the scientific production on carbon footprint in health services at a global level and contrast it with the Costa Rican reality. Method: A mapping of the literature in Spanish and English was carried out in the Scopus database, based on online thesaurus terms. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and the Bibliometrix tool in R software was used for the analysis. Subsequently, an integrative review of the selected documents was conducted with the support of the Covidence platform. A total of 46 publications were analyzed in the bibliographic analysis and 25 documents in the scoping review, identifying currently researched topics for carbon footprint reduction in healthcare. These topics include hospital input analysis, solid waste management, environmental impact assessment techniques, sustainability strategy design, environmental education, healthcare infrastructure, sustainable purchasing, and energy consumption. Conclusions: The studies, regardless of region or country, present options for improving healthcare practice in relation to the carbon footprint, also impacting the health of the populations. However, the majority of these studies, according to the GRADE methodology, present low evidence due to the particularities of the methodological design employed. International collaborations can be a useful tool to advance the implementation of technologies and political strategies that are adaptable to the Costa Rican reality, thereby making the health sector and, consequently, healthcare sustainable.</p> Ericka Murillo-Rodríguez, Wendel Mora-Rivera Copyright (c) 2024 Ericka Murillo-Rodríguez, Wendel Mora-Rivera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57743 Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Epidemiological evolution of dengue in the pre-pandemic to post-pandemic periods in the Americas and Brazil https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57664 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Dengue is an asymptomatic infection or present symptoms like low fever to disabling high fever, severe headache, retroocular, muscle and joint pain, in addition to skin rashes, and if associated with COVID-19, it can worsen the illness condition. <strong>Objective</strong>: investigate the epidemiological evolution of dengue in the pre-pandemic, pandemic and post-pandemic periods from an American and Brazilian perspective. <strong>Methodology</strong>: descriptive study, based on the search for information in epidemiological bulletins, data from DATASUS and the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, in addition to articles available in databases provided by SciELO, ScienceDirect and Pubmed. Results: In the period before the pandemic, the high number of notifications was due to the DENV2 serotype, causing a large epidemic. In the years 2020-2021 there was a drop in the number of notifications due to the introduction of social and public health measures, misdiagnosis between the signs/symptoms of dengue and COVID-19, inaccurate serological tests and underreporting. In 2022 and 2023, the epidemiological scenario again points to increasing notification of dengue cases, mainly due to changes in routine vector control during the pandemic, combined with favorable environmental factors, such as increased rainfall. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: the neglect of both dengue fever and other diseases has negatively impacted the population today, since in order to mitigate the damage caused by the pandemic, actions to promote and prevent the health of endemic diseases in our territory, when placed in the background, have caused the underreporting of cases, influenced by changes in the political, economic and health spheres of society.</p> Viviane Karolina Vivi-Oliveira, Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento, Ana Cláudia Pereira Terças-Trettel, Bianca Ayne Terrabuio, Klaucia Rodrigues Vasconcelos, Elaine Cristina de Oliveira, Diniz Pereira Leite-Júnior Copyright (c) 2024 Viviane Karolina Vivi-Oliveira, Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento, Ana Cláudia Pereira Terças-Trettel, Bianca Ayne Terrabuio, Klaucia Rodrigues Vasconcelos, Elaine Cristina de Oliveira, Diniz Pereira Leite-Júnior https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57664 Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Quality of Sleep in Urban and Aeronautical Firefighters of Ciudad Bolívar, Venezuela https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57193 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Night work increases the state of fatigue and the deterioration of biological functions, affects mental and physical health, causing poor work performance, the objective of the study was to determine the quality of sleep and the sociodemographic data related to the body staff. of urban firefighters and the aeronautical fire department of Ciudad Bolívar Venezuela. <strong>Methodology</strong>: An observational, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach was carried out. The population was made up of 60 urban firefighters and 20 aeronautical firefighters, the sample was by convenience, through a self-administered survey, sociodemographic data, working conditions and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (ICSP) were collected. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact test were applied. <strong>Results</strong>: It was found in urban firefighters that 61.82% presented pathological sleep quality, the most affected gender was male, and the highest frequency of pathological sleep were those who had service time between 1-11 years. Of the aeronautical firefighters, 83.33% presented pathological sleep, with the highest frequency being pathological sleep; It was the masculine gender. It was also observed that the subjective quality of sleep is “quite good” in both. <strong>Conclusions</strong>: Both firefighters present alterations in sleep quality, with urban firefighters being the most affected. It was found that there are differences in relation to age, gender, and length of service. The importance of adapting to the pace of work was also evident. coping tools.</p> Mishel Yohana Rincon Ortiz, Alejandro Daniel Rafaela Sanchez, Paola Estephania Guerra Di Bonaventura, Jesús Brito Nuñez Copyright (c) 2024 Mishel Yohana Rincon Ortiz, Alejandro Daniel Rafaela Sanchez, Paola Estephania Guerra Di Bonaventura, Jesús B rito Nuñez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57193 Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Insurance in public health, social and private security, and its impact on income poverty in Ecatepec de Morelos, Mexico https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/56837 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Determine the incidence of health insurance on income poverty in the municipality of Ecatepec de Morelos. <strong>Method: </strong>Quantitative study carried out with sociodemographic and economic information collected during the period 2021-2022; An ordinal logistic model was applied taking income poverty as the dependent variable and insurance and some sociodemographic variables of interest as predictors.<strong> Results</strong>: significant differences and greater impact were observed in poverty due to moderate and extreme income depending on the type of affiliation, as well as the presence of out-of-pocket health expenses.<strong> Conclusions: </strong>Insurance by itself does not guarantee financial protection, which can lead to impoverishment; Out-of-pocket spending is the variable with the highest incidence in income poverty.</p> Hugo Nathanael Lara Figueroa, Edith Miriam García Salazar, Emma Martínez Blanco Copyright (c) 2024 Hugo Nathanael Lara Figueroa, Edith Miriam García Salazar, Emma Martínez Blanco https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/56837 Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Risk perception and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus infection among a group of Mexican males https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57721 <p><strong>Introduction.</strong> Human papillomavirus infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection that might be prevented with knowledge and attitudes that promote safe sex. Males play a role in transmission as they are asymptomatic carriers of the virus, a situation that they ignore. The aim of the study is to determine association between knowledge and risk perception with subclinical infection.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>. A prospective, cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted, including 164 males between 18 and 45 years, self-selected to be included. A self-administered instrument was used to measure perception of risk and knowledge about human papillomavirus infection with ten items using the Likert scale, five for measure risk perception and five to knowledge. Molecular biology, to identify the virus in the genitals, was used. <strong>Results.</strong> The male's average age was 29 years, with an infection prevalence of 24 %, 68 % of the population studied had a high perception of risk for acquiring the infection; 30 % medium risk, and only 2 % had a low perception. Regarding knowledge, 88 % had a high level and 12 % medium level. No association between knowledge level (p=0.53299) and perception of infection risk (p=0.53299) was found. <strong>Conclusion</strong>. No association between knowledge and risk perception with asymptomatic papillomavirus infection was found.</p> Diego Sosa-Hernandez, Sthepany Burgos-Salas, Jesús Gómez-Carballo, Laura Conde-Ferráez, Ligia Vera-Gamboa, Nuvia Kantun-Moreno, Maria del Refugio Gonzalez-losa Copyright (c) 2024 Diego Sosa-Hernandez, Sthepany Burgos-Salas, Jesús Gómez-Carballo, Laura Conde-Ferráez, Ligia Vera-Gamboa, Nuvia Kantun-Moreno, Maria del Refugio Gonzalez-losa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57721 Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Level of knowledge about type 2 Diabetes and treatment adherence in honduran population https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57421 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In Honduras, 495,011 people were diagnosed with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DMT2) during the year 2015, this being the last existing record, affecting between 7.0% and 10.0% of the population. Diabetes education is essential for adequate control of DM, therefore the purpose of the study was to describe the level of knowledge about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and adherence to treatment in the population that attends the National Diabetic Institute in the months of January and February of the year 2023 in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. <strong>Methodology: </strong>It is a correlational cross-sectional study with a non-experimental approach, with a population of 20,500 patients, a sample of 378 individuals was obtained for analysis. The participants were selected by a non-randomized method, where they answered the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ 24) to assess the level of knowledge and for adherence to treatment, the Morisky-Green test was used. <strong>Results: </strong>266 (70.4%) people had an intermediate level of knowledge and 193 (51.1%) participants, being the majority, reported inadequate adherence to treatment for their disease. When analyzing the relationship between both variables, they have a statistical significance of p 0.007. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> it is concluded that knowledge about DMT2 should be strengthened among Hondurans, taking into account the areas with deficiency and delve into the factors involved in poor adherence to treatment.</p> Norma Isabel Galeas Calleja, Julio César Raudales Moncada, Juan Pablo Carías Díaz Copyright (c) 2024 Norma Isabel Galeas Calleja, Julio César Raudales Moncada, Juan Pablo Carías Díaz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57421 Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Impact of COVID-19 on mortality in the elderly population of Cordoba, Argentina. Preliminary analysis of the first two years of the pandemic https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57178 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>This paper aims to analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020-2021 in Córdoba (Argentina) on older people, measured by excess deaths (ED) and change in life expectancy (LE). <strong>Methodology: </strong>Data sources used were deaths for the period 2017-2020, from the national Ministry of Health. Life tables were calculated for the three-year periods 2017-2019, 2020 and 2021. Finally, the decomposition of EV differences in 2020 and 2021 was calculated. <strong>Results: </strong>There were 10.3% excess deaths in 2020 and 25.5% in 2021, higher in males. ED was concentrated in the over-60s, although in 2021 mortality in young adults was significant. In 2020 the ED rate in males over 80 is three times higher than in the 60-79 years group. There is a marked bias between males and females. In 2021 there are fewer differences between ages and sexes, although the higher rate for males over 80 remains. In 2020 COVID deaths accounted for 74.2 per cent of ED for males and 102.4 per cent for females; in 2021 they accounted for 60.2 per cent and 57.7 per cent respectively. The EV loss in 2020 was 0.83 years in males and 0.26 in females; in 2021, 2.73 and 2.25 years respectively. Older males concentrate the decline in EV in infectious diseases and COVID-19. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>Knowledge of the impact of the pandemic on older people provides valuable evidence for health policy planning.</p> Enrique Pelaez, Leandro Mariano González, Laura Débora Acosta Copyright (c) 2024 Enrique Pelaez, Leandro Mariano González, Laura Débora Acosta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/57178 Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 -0600 Detection and measurement of violence against women in Primary Health Care: A narrative review https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/55611 <p>Introduction: Violence against women is a social and public health problem that affects women around the world. Despite the diversity of prevalence studies carried out in health services in Latin America, to date no reviews have been carried out in this region. This work aims to review the literature to understand how this violence is detected and how its prevalence is measured in Primary Health Care services in Latin American countries. Methodology: a narrative bibliographic review was carried out of academic articles published between 2001-2021 aimed at detecting and measuring the prevalence of violence against women in the health sector. 42 original articles were selected and an integrative synthesis of the results was carried out. Results: the detection and/or measurement of violence against women in health centers is carried out by a variety of instruments, most of which are diagnostic. Three theoretical perspectives are identified; each one builds an image of the problem of violence. Conclusion: it is necessary to build valid and reliable data on this problem, with the possibility of being compared between regions and over time. It is important to clarify research designs in social theories, to achieve a contextualized and multidimensional understanding of the problem. Information should be provided on the most appropriate way to detect and care for violence against women in the health field.</p> Lucia Florencia Sánchez, Lorena Saletti-Cuesta Copyright (c) 2024 Lucia Florencia Sánchez, Lorena Saletti-Cuesta https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/55611 Mon, 01 Jul 2024 00:00:00 -0600