Revista de Biología Tropical, ISSN: 2215-2075 Vol. 69(3): 1098-1106, July-September 2021 (Published Sep. 30, 2021)
Cuba Publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded:
publication characteristics, institutions and journals
Julián Monge-Nájera
; https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7764-2966
Dianelis Olivera Batista
; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7081-9092
Yuh-Shan Ho
; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2557-8736
1. Laboratorio de Ecología Urbana, Vicerrectoría de Investigación, Universidad Estatal a Distancia, 2050 San José, Costa
Rica; julianmonge@gmail.com
2. Department of Information Science, Central University “Marta Abreu” of Las Villas, Santa Clara, Cuba;
3. Trend Research Centre, Asia University, No. 500 Lioufeng Road, Wufeng, Taichung 41354, Taiwan;
ysho@asia.edu.tw (*Correspondence)
Received 14-V-2021. Corrected 06-IX-2021. Accepted 23-IX-2021.
Introduction: In contrast with other tropical countries, Cuba has been frequently studied from the point of view
of scientometrics. It has been reported that Cuban researchers often failed to cite other Cuban researchers or to
collaborate with them and that 78 % of the Cuban scientific output is published in Cuban journals and mostly
missed by Scopus and the Web of Science. However, there are no recent comprehensive studies of science in
Objective: To quantify the Cuban scientific output, in all disciplines, until the beginning of 2021.
Methods: We analyzed publications from Cuba, dated 1900 to 2021, that reached the index Science Citation
Index Expanded.
Results: We retrieved a total of 23 576 publications, mostly articles. In this particular database, English is
the dominant language, and, over time, articles have become longer and increased the number of authors and
references. Numerically, the leading institution is Universidad de La Habana. Research is strongly concentrated
around medical subjects. Collaboration teams led by foreign authors have more citations recorded by the data-
base, where the number of Cuban articles has decreased strongly since 2008.
Conclusion: Our conclussions only apply to the fraction of Cuban science covered by the Science Citation Index
Expanded (under 22 %). We recommend three main improvements: to increase collaboration among Cuban
scientists; to expand research areas beyond medical subjects; and to improve the quality of Cuban journals.
Key words: tropical countries; impact factor; bibliometrics; science and development; scientific production.
Monge-Nájera, J., Olivera Batista, D., & Ho, Y. S. (2021). Cuba
Publications in the Science Citation Index Expanded:
publication characteristics, institutions and journals.
Revista de Biología Tropical, 69(3), 1098-1106. https://
In contrast with other tropical countries,
Cuba, a Caribbean island of 11 million inhab-
itants, has been frequently studied from the
point of view of scientometrics. A report that
covered clinical essays, from 1991 to 2001,
found that a mean of 17 articles were published
every year (74 % in English), with a mean of
seven authors each, that in 96 journals from
17 countries (Ruiz et al., 2002). The values
for dengue studies were consistent with that
report, with a mean of 6 authors per article, in
45 journals and 12 countries. The second study
Revista de Biología Tropical, ISSN: 2215-2075, Vol. 69(3): 1098-1106, July-September 2021 (Published Sep. 30, 2021)
additionally reported a mean of six citations
per article, in total; and a historical increase in
the number of articles in the field of biomedi-
cine, locally led by the Instituto de Medicina
Tropical “Pedro Kourí” (Arencibia-Jorge et al.,
2008). All reports, however, have limited value
because American databases do not reflect the
reality of Cuban publications, which appear
mostly in Spanish and in journals not properly
covered by those databases or other indices
(Araujo Ruiz et al., 2005).
A decade ago, other studies found that edu-
cation, just like other areas of research, grew in
output from 2003 to 2012 (Cruz Ramírez et al.,
2014) and that Scopus and the Web of Science
covered poorly the growing scientific output
of Cuba, making them insufficient to study
Cuban science (Arencibia-Jorge & de Moya-
Anegón, 2010).
More recent authors have reported that
Cuban researchers often fail to cite other
Cuban researchers or to collaborate with them
(Chinchilla-Rodríguez et al., 2015), a result
also reported by Zacca-González et al. (2015).
Along the same line, a study of the state-owned
pharmaceutical company found a strong spe-
cialization of research on vaccines, little col-
laboration and low visibility of publications
(Arencibia-Jorge et al., 2016).
For the period 2003-2012, it was reported
that Cuban authors were research team leaders
only in small studies, published in Spanish and
with low citation values in foreign databases
(Chinchilla-Rodríguez et al., 2016). Over time,
Cuban researchers working in Europe –mostly,
students– decrease their collaboration with
researchers working in the island, but their
collaboration is numerically significant, with
991 institutions and 58 countries participating
(Palacios-Callender & Roberts, 2018).
More recently, a comparative study in
several databases estimated that 78 % of the
Cuban scientific output is published in Cuban
journals, and that, of those published in foreign
journals, Scopus missed 33 % and the Web
of Science missed 38 % (Galbán-Rodríguez
et al., 2019).
The most recent study considered only
evaluations of medical syllabi in Cuban jour-
nals and basically found that they have a mean
of 0.6 citations per year (Fernández et al., 2020)
Considering that there is a need for a
study that (1) considers all fields of Cuban
science and (2) is updated, we analyzed article
characteristics (subject, language, authorship),
institutions and journals that appear in the Web
of Science, as well as citations covered by that
particular database, for all fields and updated to
January 2021. We present the results as a solid
basis for better decisions in the administration
of science in Cuba.
We used the Science Citation Index
Expanded (“SCI-EXPANDED”), Web of Sci-
ence Core Collection (updated January 21,
2021), and did an advanced search using the
word “Cuba” in field country (CU) limited to
the period 1900 to 2019. The journal impact
factors (IF
) were extracted from the 2019
Journal Citation Reports (JCR). This study
is part of a series on the scientific output
of tropical countries and all methodological
details have repeatedly been published and
can be consulted in Calahorrano et al. (2020).
We chose journal articles for further analysis
because they represented the majority of docu-
ment types, as well as whole research ideas
and results. We also searched for relationships
between article subject and number of journals
in Web of Science categories. The Web of
Science can classify a document in more than
one type, for example, 120 proceedings papers
were also classified as articles, and thus the
sum of percentages can be higher than 100 %.
The second author, who is familiar with
Cuban science, corrected database misspell-
ings, errors and variability in institutional
names. The “reprint author” field is the cor-
responding author, thus this study used “cor-
responding author”. If authorship is not defined
as first or corresponding author, the first author
was defined as both, similar to single institu-
tional articles. The countries, institutions, and
Revista de Biología Tropical, ISSN: 2215-2075 Vol. 69(3): 1098-1106, July-September 2021 (Published Sep. 30, 2021)
collaboration were obtained from the authors
affiliation. “Country independent articles”
and “single institute articles” were defined
as “authors affiliation is from Cuba” and
“only one institute”, respectively. “Interna-
tionally collaborative articles” means that the
coauthors are from different countries and
“inter-institutionally collaborative articles” that
the coauthors are from different institutions
inside Cuba.
Document type, language, year of pub-
lication and citation impact: We retrieved
23 576 publications. In this database, most of
the publications are articles, distantly followed
by meeting abstracts and letters (Appendix
1). Articles have a mean of 21 authors and 15
citations; meeting abstracts 7 authors and 0.2
citations; and letters have on average 2 authors
and 2 citations. The most cited document types
are book chapters, with a mean of 48 citations;
reviews with 32 citations; and articles with a
mean of 15 citations (Appendix 1).
English is, by far, the dominant language.
Spanish follows distantly, and the rest of the
languages, led by Russian, are only marginal
(Appendix 2). English articles have a mean of
23 authors, Spanish articles 4 authors and Rus-
sian articles also 4 authors. Citations do not
fully correspond with the leading languages,
because the highest mean citations, 25, is for
publications in Chinese, followed by English
with 16 citations and French with 4 citations
per paper on average (Appendix 2).
The historical trend shows an increase in
the number of authors, references and pages
per paper over time, from 2 or 3 authors writing
7-page long papers with 6 to 30 references in
the 1970s, to 20-60 authors writing 10-13 page
articles with 30-50 references in the last decade
(Appendix 3).
Collaboration pattern. Countries
and institutions: Articles from teams led
by foreign authors received twice as many
citations in journals covered by this particular
database (Fig. 1).
Most foreign collaboration was done with
Spain, Mexico and Brazil; but the most cited
papers were those published with teams from
Switzerland, Sweden and the Netherlands
(Appendix 4).
The leading collaborating institutions were
the National Autonomous University (Mexico),
the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the
Spanish National Research Council; but the
highest citation rates were for publications with
the Universities of Tokyo (Japan), Oslo (Nor-
way) and Lund (Sweden) (Appendix 5).
The citation lifespan of Cuban articles is
long, reaching four decades; but the pattern is
different from those from the nearby Central
American countries, because Cuban articles
reached peak citation in the second year, while
Central American articles were most cited in
the 2-6 years following publication (Fig. 2).
Inclusion of Cuban publications in the
Science Citation Index Expanded was random
before 1972, with only a minimal fraction of
work entering the database; it only started to
have any visible trend in the 1970s, when less
than 200 documents were added every year,
and increased to the current volume of around
800 documents and 20 citations per document
per year (Fig. 3). The same applies to interna-
tional collaborative publications, which were
about 50 per year in the 1990s and reached 200
per year in recent times (Appendix 6).
Leading institutions and authors: In
terms of publication output that reaches this
database, the leading institutions were Uni-
versidad de La Habana, Universidad Central
Marta Abreu de Las Villas, and the Centro de
Ingeniería Genética y Biotecnología. How-
ever, the highest citation rates correspond to
Centro de Neurociencias de Cuba; Centro
de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo
Nuclear, and Centro de Química Farmacéutica
(Appendix 7).
After a clear increase in citations during
the 1980s, the top productive institutes in Cuba
have remained stable in recent years, with
Revista de Biología Tropical, ISSN: 2215-2075, Vol. 69(3): 1098-1106, July-September 2021 (Published Sep. 30, 2021)
under 60 citations per year each, but Universi-
dad de La Habana had a different pattern: after
2000 it greatly increased to 150 to 200 citations
per year (Appendix 8).
Web of Science categories and other
data: The most productive fields were Dairy
and animal science and agriculture, Bio-
chemistry and molecular biology, and Multi-
disciplinary materials science, but the field
appearing in more journals was the latter
(Appendix 9, Appendix 10).
The journals that published most of the
articles were the Cuban Journal of Agricul-
tural Science, the Revista de Neurología and
the Medicc Review, but the journals with the
highest citation rates were Vaccine; Physical
Review B; and PLoS One (Appendix 11).
Historically, all the leading fields grew
in output from 1975 to 2010, but decreased
afterwards; however, Multidisciplinary materi-
als science seems to be recovering (Fig. 4). The
leading journals have evolved differently over
time, with the Cuban Journal of Agriculture
having a slow growth but then disappearing
from the database around 2010; and other jour-
nals mostly having a smaller presence in recent
years (Appendix 12).
The most frequently used words in Cuban
article titles were Cuba, effect, Cuban, analy-
sis, and effects (Appendix 13); and the most
frequently used author keywords were Cuba,
taxonomy, QSAR (Quantitative structure-
activity relationships), systematics and vaccine
(Appendix 14).
The most cited articles where those
resulting from Cuban participation in interna-
tional medical megaprojects about human pap-
illomavirus; body-mass index, and proteomics
(Appendix 15). Historically, all top-cited papers
Fig. 1. Research team country versus output and mean citations in the Web of Science Core Collection. TP: total articles,
NFR: both first and corresponding-authors are not from Cuba, NR: corresponding-author is not from Cuba, NF: first-author
is not from Cuba, IC: internationally collaborative articles, NC: nationally collaborative articles, II: institutional independent
articles, CI: Cuba independent articles, FP: first-author is from Cuba, RP: corresponding-author is from Cuba, FR: both first
and corresponding-authors are from Cuba.
Revista de Biología Tropical, ISSN: 2215-2075 Vol. 69(3): 1098-1106, July-September 2021 (Published Sep. 30, 2021)
Fig. 2. Citation life span for Cuban articles, compared with Central American articles.
Fig. 3. Historical trend of exclusively Cuban articles: output and mean yearly citations.
Revista de Biología Tropical, ISSN: 2215-2075, Vol. 69(3): 1098-1106, July-September 2021 (Published Sep. 30, 2021)
followed a pattern of slow increase, plateau and
slow decrease in citations, never reaching more
than 200 citations per year, but three papers
published after 2015 grew exponentially from
400 to 600 citations in recent years: they are
all about medical subjects and resulted from
international megaprojects in which Cuba was
not the leader (Appendix 16).
The higher citation rates of book chapters
and reviews that we found for Cuba have also
been reported previously by other authors for
other countries and subjects (e.g. Leydesdorff
& Felt, 2012; Torres-Salinas et al., 2013) and
simply reflect the fact that books and reviews
summarize much work and, thus, are useful for
a larger number of scientific writers, standard
articles are more specialized and addressed to a
smaller number of researchers (Calver & Brad-
ley, 2010; Leydesdorff & Felt, 2012).
When comparing our results with those
of older studies done by Ruiz et al. (2002) and
Arencibia-Jorge et al. (2008) it is clear that
Cuban articles have become longer, now have
more authors, and cite more literature than
those from one or two decades ago, and this
fully matches a world trend for science, with
research becoming more complex and requir-
ing larger teams and longer reports that, in turn,
cite more previous publications (Palacios-Cal-
lender et al., 2016; Palacios-Callender & Rob-
erts, 2018). The largest studies are often part
of international megaprojects in the field of
human health, and thus, are normally writen in
English and highly cited. It does not mean that
they are better than studies with less citations, it
only reflects the larger number of research done
in health-related subjects (Zacca-González et
al., 2015; Calahorrano et al., 2020).
The increasing dominance of English in
scientific reports, a dominance that is clear in
the Cuban articles that we studied, can be mis-
leading, because the Web of Science is known
Fig. 4. Historical output for Cuba in the most productive Web of Science categories.
Revista de Biología Tropical, ISSN: 2215-2075 Vol. 69(3): 1098-1106, July-September 2021 (Published Sep. 30, 2021)
to be heavily biased against articles pub-
lished in other languages (Falagas et al., 2008;
Monge-Nájera & Ho, 2017a). A very signifi-
cant part of the Cuban technical and scientific
literature is published in Spanish, the official
language spoken on the island. All that litera-
ture, locally important and influential, is miss-
ing from the Web of Science (Arencibia-Jorge
& de Moya-Anegón, 2010; Zacca-González et
al., 2015). This poor coverage of Cuban sci-
ence by the Web of Science and Scopus has
been repeatedly reported but not solved but
those databases, in detriment of Cuban science
(Araujo Ruiz et al., 2005; Galbán-Rodríguez
et al., 2019).
The publication, in Chinese, of articles
with Cuban coauthors, is an anomaly that
deserves further study, and their high citation
rate could result from the large number of
scientists active in China, the most populated
country in the world.
The predominant collaboration of Cuban
researchers with the ex-colonial power Spain,
and with neighboring nations with powerful
scientific institutions (Mexico and Brazil) also
follows a general pattern that has been identi-
fied before in other countries throughout the
tropics (Chinchilla-Rodríguez, et al., 2016;
Palacios-Callender & Roberts, 2018; Sáenz et
al., 2010). The higher citation rates in articles
produced in collaboration with rich nations
like Switzerland, Sweden and the Netherlands,
can be explained by the access of researchers
in those nations to larger budgets and thus to
more influential journals (Palacios-Callender
& Roberts, 2018).
The long citation lifespan of Cuban arti-
cles is typical of poorer countries, in which
science advances slowly because of the low
budgets assigned to research (Overbeck et al.,
2018); a similar result has been reported for
the rest of the Caribbean region, for example,
in the case of Nicaragua (Monge-Nájera & Ho,
2017b). A curious result, though, is the peak
citation of Cuban articles within two years of
its publication: this is not normal in tropical
countries (e.g. Arencibia-Jorge & de Moya-
Anegón, 2010; Monge-Nájera & Ho, 2018)
and may result from the Cuban concentration
on health-related research, which is the most
abundant and rapidly cited type of research
(Arencibia-Jorge et al., 2016; Zacca-González
et al., 2014). Nevertheless, the most common
keywords in Cuban research reaching the Web
of Science suggests a concentration on applied
topics of local interest, which is normally a
recipe for scientific stagnation (Toole, 2012).
The only other country in the region with
a good number of scientometrics studies is El
Salvador, and, like Cuba, El Salvador is a coun-
try that made an important investment in fields
that are not limited to the natural sciences, par-
ticularly social sciences after the end of its civil
war (Monge-Nájera & Ho, 2017c).
Overall, Cuban science has a good poten-
tial for participation in the Open Science move-
ment that is prevalent in Latin America, but it
needs to apply the following improvements:
increase collaboration among Cuban scientists;
expand its research areas beyond medical sub-
jects; improve the quality of its own journals.
It also needs to identify and correct the cause
of its decline in the last decade. Cuba is yet to
reach its full scientific potential and it should
follow the example of other small nations that
are more successful (Allik et al., 2020).
Ethical statement: authors declare that
they all agree with this publication and made
significant contributions; that there is no con-
flict of interest of any kind; and that we fol-
lowed all pertinent ethical and legal procedures
and requirements. All financial sources are
fully and clearly stated in the acknowledge-
ments section. A signed document has been
filed in the journal archives.
We thank Carolina Seas for her assistance
with the literature and manuscript preparation.
Revista de Biología Tropical, ISSN: 2215-2075, Vol. 69(3): 1098-1106, July-September 2021 (Published Sep. 30, 2021)
Publicaciones de Cuba en el Índice de Citación
de Ciencia: características de la publicación,
instituciones y revistas
Introducción: A diferencia de otros países tropicales,
Cuba ha sido frecuentemente estudiada desde el punto de
vista de la cienciometría. Se ha informado que los investi-
gadores cubanos citan poco a otros investigadores cubanos,
no colaboraron entre sí, y que el 78 % de la producción
científica cubana se publica en revistas cubanas sin llegar a
Scopus y la Web of Science. Sin embargo, no existen estu-
dios recientes y generales de la ciencia en Cuba.
Objetivo: Cuantificar la producción científica cubana, en
todas las disciplinas, hasta inicios de 2021.
Métodos: Analizamos publicaciones con dirección autoral
de Cuba, fechadas de 1900 a 2021, únicamente en el Scien-
ce Citation Index Expanded.
Resultados: Hallamos 23 576 publicaciones, en su mayo-
ría artículos. En esta base de datos en particular, el inglés es
el idioma dominante y, con el tiempo, los artículos se han
vuelto más largos y han aumentado el número de autores
y referencias. Numéricamente, la institución líder es la
Universidad de La Habana. La investigación se concentra
fuertemente en temas médicos. Los equipos de colabo-
ración dirigidos por autores extranjeros tienen más citas
registradas en esta base de datos estadounidense, donde el
número de artículos cubanos ha disminuido fuertemente
desde 2008.
Conclusión: Nuestras conclusiones solo se aplican a la
fracción de la ciencia cubana cubierta por el Science Cita-
tion Index Expanded (menos del 22 %) . Recomendamos
tres mejoras principales: incrementar la colaboración entre
los científicos cubanos; ampliar las áreas de investigación
más allá de los temas médicos; y mejorar la calidad de las
revistas cubanas.
Palabras clave: países tropicales; factor de impacto;
bibliometría; ciencia y desarrollo; producción científica.
Allik, J., Lauk, K., & Realo, A. (2020). Factors pre-
dicting the scientific wealth of nations. Cross-
Cultural Research, 54(4), 364–397. https://doi.
Araujo Ruiz, J. A., Van Hooydonk, G., Torricella Morales,
R. G., & Arencibia-Jorge, R. (2005). Cuban scien-
tific articles in ISI citation indexes and CubaCien-
cias databases (1988-2003). Scientometrics, 65(2),
161–171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-005-0265-4
Arencibia-Jorge, R., Vega-Almeida, R. L., Sánchez-Tarra-
gó, N., & Araújo-Ruiz, J. A. (2008). Producción cien-
tífica de Cuba sobre dengue 1981-2006: un análisis
métrico en Scopus. Acimed, 18(3), 1–23.
Arencibia-Jorge, R., & de Moya-Anegón, F. (2010). Cha-
llenges in the study of Cuban scientific output. Scien-
tometrics, 83(3), 723–737. https://doi.org/10.1007/
Arencibia-Jorge, R., Corera-Alvarez, E., Chinchilla-
Rodríguez, Z., & de Moya-Anegón, F. (2016).
Scientific output of the emerging Cuban biopharma-
ceutical industry: a scientometric approach. Sciento-
metrics, 108(3), 1621–1636. https://doi.org/10.1007/
Calahorrano, L., Monge-Nájera, J., Wang, M. H., & Ho,
Y. S. (2020). Ecuador publications in the Science
Citation Index Expanded: institutions, subjects, cita-
tion and collaboration patterns. Revista de Biología
Tropical, 68(1), 98–107. https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.
Calver, M. C., & Bradley, J. S. (2010). Patterns of cita-
tions of open access and non-open access conser-
vation biology journal papers and book chapters.
Conservation Biology, 24(3), 872–880. https://doi.
Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z., Arencibia-Jorge, R., de Moya-
Anegón, F., & Corera-Álvarez, E. (2015). Somes
patterns of Cuban scientific publication in Sco-
pus: the current situation and challenges. Sciento-
metrics, 103(3), 779–794. https://doi.org/10.1007/
Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z., Zacca-González, G., Vargas-
Quesada, B., & de Moya-Anegón, F. (2016). Ben-
chmarking scientific performance by decomposing
leadership of Cuban and Latin American institutions
in Public Health. Scientometrics, 106(3), 1239–1264.
Cruz Ramírez, M., Escalona Reyes, M., Cabrera García, S.,
& Martínez Caridad, M. C. (2014). Análisis ciencio-
métrico de las publicaciones educacionales cubanas
en la WoS y Scopus (2003-2012). Revista Española
de Documentación Científica, 37(3), 1–15. https://
Falagas, M. E., Pitsouni, E. I., Malietzis, G. A., & Pappas,
G. (2008). Comparison of PubMed, Scopus, web of
science, and Google scholar: strengths and weaknes-
ses. The FASEB Journal, 22(2), 338–342. https://doi.
Fernández, E., Quintana-Muñoz, L., Corrales-Reyes, I. E.,
& Chaple-Gil, A. M. (2020). Bibliometric indicators
on the evaluation of medical curricula in Cuban
biomedical journals. Revista Habanera de Ciencias
Médicas, 19(1), 154–166.
Galbán-Rodríguez, E., Torres-Ponjuán, D., Martí-Lahera,
Y., & Arencibia-Jorge, R. (2019). Measuring the
Cuban scientific output in scholarly journals through
a comprehensive coverage approach. Scientome-
trics, 121(2), 1019–1043. https://doi.org/10.1007/
Revista de Biología Tropical, ISSN: 2215-2075 Vol. 69(3): 1098-1106, July-September 2021 (Published Sep. 30, 2021)
Leydesdorff, L., & Felt, U. (2012). “Books” and “book
chapters” in the book citation index (BKCI) and
science citation index (SCI, SoSCI, A&HCI). Pro-
ceedings of the American Society for Information
Science and Technology, 49(1), 1–7. https://doi.
Monge-Nájera, J., & Ho, Y. S. (2017a). Honduras publi-
cations in the Science Citation Index Expanded:
institutions, fields and authors. Revista de Biología
Tropical, 65(2), 657–668. https://doi.org/10.15517/
Monge-Nájera, J., & Ho, Y. S. (2017b). Bibliometrics
of Nicaraguan publications in the Science Citation
Index Expanded. Revista de Biología Tropical, 65(2),
643–655. https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v65i2.23985
Monge-Nájera, J., & Ho, Y. S. (2017c). El Salvador publi-
cations in the Science Citation Index Expanded: sub-
jects, authorship, collaboration and citation patterns.
Revista de Biología Tropical, 65(4), 1428–1436.
Monge-Nájera, J., & Ho, Y. S. (2018). Guatemala articles
in the Science Citation Index Expanded: bibliometry
of subjects, collaboration, institutions and authors.
Revista de Biología Tropical, 66(1), 312–320. https://
Overbeck, G. E., Bergallo, H. G., Grelle, C. E., Akama, A.,
Bravo, F., Colli, G. R., Magnusson, W. E., Moraes
Tomas, W., & Fernandes, G. W. (2018). Global bio-
diversity threatened by science budget cuts in Brazil.
BioScience, 68(1), 11–12. https://doi.org/10.1093/
Palacios-Callender, M., & Roberts, S. A. (2018). Scientific
collaboration of Cuban researchers working in Euro-
pe: understanding relations between origin and des-
tination countries. Scientometrics, 117(2), 745–769.
Palacios-Callender, M., Roberts, S. A., & Roth-Berghofer,
T. (2016). Evaluating patterns of national and interna-
tional collaboration in Cuban science using bibliome-
tric tools. Journal of Documentation, 72(2), 362–390.
Ruiz, J. A. A., Jorge, R. A., & Calzado, C. G. (2002).
Ensayos clínicos cubanos publicados en revistas
de impacto internacional: estudio bibliométrico del
período 1991-2001. Revista Española de Documen-
tación Científica, 25(3), 254–266.
Sáenz, T. W., Thorsteinsdóttir, H., & de Souza, M. C.
(2010). Cuba and Brazil: an important example
of South-South collaboration in health biotechno-
logy. MEDICC Review, 12(3), 32–35. https://doi.
Toole, A. A. (2012). The impact of public basic research on
industrial innovation: Evidence from the pharmaceu-
tical industry. Research Policy, 41(1), 1–12. https://
Torres-Salinas, D., Rodríguez-Sánchez, R., Robinson-
García, N., Fdez-Valdivia, J., & García, J. A. (2013).
Mapping citation patterns of book chapters in the
Book Citation Index. Journal of Informetrics, 7(2),
412–424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2013.01.004
Zacca-González, G., Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z., Vargas-
Quesada, B., & de Moya-Anegón, F. (2014). Biblio-
metric analysis of regional Latin America’s scientific
output in public health through SCImago journal
& country rank. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1–11.
Zacca-González, G., Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Z., Vargas-
Quesada, B., & de Moya-Anegón, F. (2015). Patterns
of communication and impact of the Cuban scientific
output in public health. Revista Cubana de Salud
Publica, 41(2), 200–216.