https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/rbtRevista de Biología Tropical ISSN Impreso: 0034-7744 ISSN electrónico: 2215-2075

Comparison of cnidae sizes between the two morphotypes of the giant Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea (Actiniaria: Actiniidae)

Ricardo Enrique González Muñoz, Carlos Hernández-Ortiz, Agustin Garese, Nuno Simões, Fabián Horacio Acuña



DOI: https://doi.org/10.15517/rbt.v66i3.30705

Abstract


The sea anemone Condylactis gigantea is an ecologically important member of the benthic community in coral reefs of the tropical Atlantic, and displays two morphotypes with respect to the color in their tentacular tips: the green tip morphotype and the pink/purple tip morphotype. Although some molecular and ecological differences have been found between these morphotypes, no other morphological distinctions have been reported, and currently both are still considered a single taxonomic species. In the present study, we perform an exploration on the variability in the size of cnidae between these two morphotypes and performed statistical analyses to compare the 10 categories of cnidae from specimens hosted in the Cnidarian Collection of Gulf of Mexico and Mexican Caribbean, of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, which were previously collected in several coral reefs localities of the Yucatán Peninsula. Results reveal no significant variation in cnidae size between the two morphotypes, but significant variations were found within each morphotype. In addition, we update the composition of the cnidom of C. gigantea, and the utility of the size of cnidae to distinguish between morphotypes or closely related species is discussed.


Keywords


Cnidaria, Anthozoa, cnidom, coral reefs, morphotype, Condylactis gigantea

References


Acuña, F. H., Excoffon, A. C., & Ricci, L. (1997). Composition, biometry and statistical relationships between the cnidom and body size in the sea anemone Oulactis muscosa (Cnidaria: Actiniaria). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 87, 415-419.

Allcock, A. L., Watts, P. C., & Thorpe, J. P. (1998). Divergence of nematocysts in two colour morphs of the intertidal beadlet Actinia equina. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 78, 821-828.

Anderson, M. J. (2001). A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology, 26, 32-46.

Billen, B., Debaveye, S., Béress, L., Garateix, A., & Tytgat, J. (2010). Phyla- and subtype-selectivity of CgNa, a Na+ channel toxin from the venom of the Giant Caribbean Sea Anemone Condylactis gigantea. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 1, 133, 1-11.

Carlgren, O. (1949). A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. Kunglia Svenska Vetenskaps Akademiens Handlingar, 1, 1-121.

Carlgren, O. (1952). Actiniaria from North America. Arkiv für Zoologi, 3(3), 373-390.

Chiappone, M., Swanson, D. W., & Miller, S. L. (2001). Condylactis gigantea – a giant comes under pressure from the aquarium trade in Florida. Reef Encounter, 30, 29-31.

Chintiroglou, C. C., & Karalis, P. (2000). Biometric investigations on the cnidae of the Aegean colour morphs of Anemonia viridis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80, 543-544.

Chintiroglou, C. C., & Simsiridou, M. (1997). Biometric investigations on the cnidae of the sea anemone Actinia equina mediterranea form I sensu Schimdt, 1972. Israel Journal of Zoology, 43, 5-11.

Clarke, K. R. & Gorley, R. N. (2006). PRIMER v6: User Manual/Tutorial. PRIMER-E, Plymouth.

Colombara, A. M., Quinn, D., & Chadwick, N. E. (2017). Habitat segregation and population structure of Caribbean sea anemones and associated crustaceans on coral reefs at Akumal Bay, Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science, 93(4).

Doumenc, D., Chintiroglou, C., & Foubert, A. (1989). Variabilité du genre Telmatactis Gravier, 1918 (Actiniaria, Acontiaria, Isophellidae). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Historie Naturelle, 11(1), 5-45.

Duchassaing, P., & Michelotti, G. (1860). Mémoire sur les Coralliaires des Antilles. Imprimerie Royale: Turin, Italy.

Dunn, D. G. F. (1977). Variability of Epiactis prolifera (Coelenterata: Actiniaria) in intertidal zone near Bodega Bay, California. Journal of Natural History, 11, 457-463.

Fautin, D. G. (1988). Importance of nematocysts to actinian taxonomy. In D. A. Hessinger & H. M. Lenhoff, (Eds), The Biology of Nematocysts. Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA.

Fautin, D. G. (2009). Structural diversity, systematics, and evolution of cnidae. Toxicon, 54, 1054-1064.

Fox, D. L. (1979). Biochromy. Natural coloration of living things. University of California Press: California, USA.

Fox, D. L., & Pantin, F. R. S. (1941). The colours of the plumose anemone Metridium senile (L.) Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 574(230), 415-450.

Garese, A., Carrizo, S., & Acuña, F. H. (2016). Biometry of sea anemone and corallimorpharian cnidae: statistical distribution and suitable tools for analysis. Zoomorphology, 135, 395-404.

González-Muñoz, R., Garese, A., Tello-Musi, J. L., & Acuña, F. H. (2017). Morphological variability of the “Caribbean hidden anemone” Lebrunia coralligens (Wilson, 1890). Zoomorphology, 136, 287-297.

González-Muñoz, R., Simões, N., Mascaró, M., Tello-Musi, J. L., Brugler, M. R., & Rodríguez, E. (2015). Morphological and molecular variability of the sea anemone Phymanthus crucifer (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria, Actinionidea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 95(1), 69-79.

González-Muñoz, R., Simões, N., Sánchez-Rodríguez, J., Rodríguez, E., & Segura-Puertas, L. (2012). First inventory of sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria) of the Mexican Caribbean. Zootaxa, 3556, 1-38.

Hanlon, R. T., & Hixon, R. F. (1986). Behavioral associations of coral reef fishes with the sea anemone Condylactis gigantea in the Dry Tortugas, Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science, 39(1), 130-134.

Hanlon, R. T., & Kaufman, L. (1976). Associations of seven West Indian reef fishes with sea anemones. Bulletin of Marine Science, 26(2), 225-232.

Hensley, N. M., Cook, T. C., Lang, M., Petelle, M. B., & Blumstein, D. T. (2012). Personality and habitat segregation in giant sea anemones (Condylactis gigantea). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 426-427, 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.jembe.2012.05.011

Karalis, P., & Chintiroglou, C. C. (1997). Biometric investigations on the cnidae of the rustica-color variety of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (Förskal, 1775). Israel Journal of Zoology, 43(4), 385-390.

Le Sueur, C. A. (1817). Observations on several species of the genus Actinia; illustrated by figures. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1, 149-154, 169-189.

LeBoeuf, R. D., McCommas, S. A., & Howe, N. R. (1981b). Coloration in sea anemones —II. Comparative studies on the column carotenoid polymorphism for two species of Bunodosoma (Anthozoa: Actiniaria). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B, 68(2), 221-224.

LeBoeuf, R. D., McCommas, S. A., Howe, N. R., & Tauber, J. D. (1981a). The role of carotenoids in the color polymorphism of the sea anemone, Bunodosoma granulifera (Anthozoa: Actiniaria). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B, 68(2), 25-29.

Manchenko, G. P., Dautova, T. N., & Latypov, Y. Y. (2000). High level of genetic divergence between sympatric color morphs of the littoral sea anemone Anthopleura orientalis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 28, 737-750.

McCommas, S. A., & LeBoeuf, R. D. (1981). Reduced color polymorphism in a population of Bunodosoma granulifera. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 9(4), 329-332.

Östman, C. (2000). A guideline to nematocysts nomenclature and classification, and some notes on the systematic value of nematocysts. Scientia Marina, 64(1), 31-46.

Rafinesque, C.S. (1815). Analyse de la Nature ou Tableau de l’Univers et des Corps Organisés. Rafinesque, C.S.: Palerme, Italy.

Rodríguez, E., Barbeitos, M. S., Brugler, M. R., Crowley, L. M., Grajales, A., Gusmão, L., Häussermann, V., Reft., A., & Daly, M. (2014). Hidden among sea anemones: The first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) reveals a novel group of hexacorals. PLoS One, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096998.

Romero, L., Marcussi, S., Marchi-Salvador, D. P., Silva Jr., F. P., Fuly, A. L., Stábeli, R. G., da Silva, S. L., González, J., del Monte, A., & Soares, A. M. (2010). Enzymatic and structural characterization of a basic A2 from the sea anemone Condylactis gigantea. Biochimie, 92, 1063-1071.

Santos, Y., Martínez, M., Sandoval, A., Rodríguez, A. A., Falcón, A., Heimer de la Cotera, E. P., Aguilar, M. B., Flores, P., Felix, R., & Arreguín, R. (2013). Arrhythmogenic effect of a crude extract from sea anemone Condylactis gigantea: Possible involvement of rErg1 channels. Toxicon, 67, 47-54. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.02.015

Sheridan, N. E., Fautin, D. G., & Garret, M. J. (2015). Gametogenesis and reproductive periodicity of the “biologically vulnerable” giant Caribbean sea anemone, Condylactis gigantea, in Florida. Invertebrate Biology, 134(2), 116-128. doi:10.1111/ivb.12084

Silbiger, N. J. & Childress, M. J. (2008). Interspecific variation in anemone shrimp distribution and host selection in the Florida Keys (USA): Implications for marine conservation. Bulletin of Marine Science, 83(2), 329-345.

Solé-Cava, A. M., & Thorpe, J. P. (1987). Further genetic evidence for the reproductive isolation of green sea anemone Actinia prasina Gosse from common intertidal beadlet anemone Actinia equina (L.) Marine Ecology Progress Series, 38, 225-229.

Stoletzki, N., & Schierwater, B. (2005). Genetic and color morph differentiation in the Caribbean sea anemone Condylactis gigantea. Marine Biology, 147(3), 747-754. doi:10.1007/s00227-005-1620-y

Watts, P. C., & Thorpe, J. P. (1998). Phenotypic identification of three genetically differentiated morphs of the intertidal beadlet Actinia equina (Anthozoa: Cnidaria). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 78, 821-828.

Watts, P. C., Allcock, A. L., Lynch, S. M., & Thorpe, J. P. (2000). An analysis of the nematocysts of the beadlet anemone Actinia equina and the green sea anemone Actinia prasina. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80, 719-724.

Weinland, D. F. (1860). Über Inselbildung durch korallen und Mangrovebüsche im mexikanischen Golf. Württembergische Naturwissenschaftliche Jahreshefte, 16, 31-44.

Williams, R. B. (1996). Measurements of cnidae from sea anemones (Cnidaria: Actiniaria): statistical parameters and taxonomic relevance. Scientia Marina, 60(2–3), 339-351.

Wilson, H. V. (1890). On a new actinia, Hoplophoria coralligens. Studies at the Biological Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University, 4(6), 379-387.

Zamponi, M. O., & Acuña, F. H. (1994). La variabilidad de los cnidocistos y su importancia en la determinación de clines. Physis, 49(116-117), 7-18.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


© 2017 Universidad de Costa Rica. Para ver más detalles sobre la distribución de los artículos en este sitio visite el aviso legal. Este sitio es desarrollado por UCRIndex y Open Journal Systems. ¿Desea cosechar nuestros metadatos? dirección OAI-PMH: https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/index/oai