Revista de Biología Tropical ISSN Impreso: 0034-7744 ISSN electrónico: 2215-2075

Distribution and abundance patterns of echinoderms in the fjord and channel complex from a subantarctic north Patagonian Ice field, Magellan region


Patagonian icefield
Magellan region

How to Cite

Mutschke, E., Gerdes, D., & Ríos, C. (2017). Distribution and abundance patterns of echinoderms in the fjord and channel complex from a subantarctic north Patagonian Ice field, Magellan region. Revista De Biología Tropical, 65(S1), S60-S72.


The existence of latitudinal marine biodiversity gradients from low to high-southern latitudes is a controversial issue regarding the marine biogeographic division in the Southeastern Pacific. In this region, the Northern Patagonian Icefield is considered a break point for faunistic elements derived from more northern or southern biogeographical realms. However, the division seems to be better defined by distribution patterns and endemism of specific marine taxa. There have been no exhaustive latitudinal benthic inventories compiled along the southern-eastern Pacific Chilean coastline. This study focuses on the spatial distribution variability and relative abundance of the sublittoral echinoderm assemblages and uses them to establish an evaluation of zoogeographic relationship in the Southeastern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. This is the first time echinoderms have been used for this purpose. A total 3 665 echinoderm specimens were collected in two cruises. Within this organism pool, 29 species were distinguished, belonging to the asteroids (17 species), echinoids (6 species), ophiuroids (4 species) and holothurians (2 species); crinoids were not found. The dominant species were the asteroid Ctenodiscus procurator, the echinoid Pseudechinus magellanicus, the ophiuroid Ophiuroglypha lymani, and the irregular sea urchin Tripylaster philippii. The spatial distribution patterns for the echinoderm clusters along the study area showed only weak geographical trends. Stations belong in three groups: with influence of glacier processes, influence of waters of the open Pacific Ocean, and a third group of stations without any links to specific locations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65(Suppl. 1): S60-S72. Epub 2017 November 01.


Ahumada, R. B, Pinto, L. A. & Camus, P. A. (2000). The Chilean coast, in: Sheppard, C.R.C. (Ed.) Seas at the millennium: an environmental evaluation: 1. Regional chapters: Europe, The Americas and West Africa. pp. 699-717.

Arntz, W. E. (1999). Magellan-Antarctic: Ecosystems that drifted apart. Summary Review. Scientia Marina, 63(S1), 503-511.

Arntz, W. E., Lovrich, G. A. & Thatje, S. (2005). The Magellan-Antarctic connection: links and frontiers at high southern latitudes (Proceedings of the Second International IBMANT Conference, CADIC, Ushuaia, Argentina, 19-24 Oct 2003). Scientia Marina, 69 (S2), 1-374.

Avaria, S., Cáceres, C. & Muñoz, P. (2004). Distribución del microfitoplancton marino entre el golfo Corcovado y el estero Elefantes en la primavera de 1998 y en el verano de1999 (Crucero Cimar-4 Fiordos). Ciencia y Tecnología del Mar, 27, 17-47.

Bernasconi, I. (1953). Monografía de los equinoideos argentinos. Anales Museo Historia Natural Montevideo, (2ª. Ser) 6(2), 1-58.

Bernasconi, I. (1962). Asteroideos argentinos. III. Familia Odontasteridae. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, 8(3), 1-51.

Bernasconi, I. (1963). Asteroideos argentinos. V. Familia Goniasteridae. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, 9(1), 1-25.

Bernasconi, I. (1964). Asteroideos argentinos. V. Familia Ganeriidae. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, 9(4), 59-89.

Brattström, H. & Johanssen, A. (1983). Ecological and regional zoogeography of the marine benthic fauna. Report N.º 49 of the Lund University Chile Expedition 1948-49. Sarsia, 68, 289-339.

Camus, P. A. (2001). Biogeografía marina de Chile Continental. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 74, 587-617.

Castillo, J. (1968). Contribución al conocimiento de los ofiuroídeos chilenos. Gayana Zoología, 14, 1-63.

Clark, H. L. (1920). Asteroidea. Report 32 on the Scientific Results of the Expedition of the “Albatross” to the Tropical Pacific, 1904-1905. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, 39(3), 69-114.

Clarke, K. R. & Gorley, R. N. (2006). PRIMER v6: User Manual/Tutorial. PRIMER-E Ltd, Plymouth.

Clark, A. M. & Downey, M.E. (1992). Starfishes of the Atlantic. London: Chapman & Hall. 794 pp.

Crame, J. A. (1999). An evolutionary perspective on marine faunal connections between southernmost South America and Antarctica. Scientia Marina, 63(S1), 1-14.

Dahm, C. (1999). Ophiuroids (Echinodermata) of southern Chile and the Antarctic: taxonomy, biomass, diet and growth of dominant species. Scientia Marina, 63(S1), 427-432.

Darvill, C., Stokes C., Bentley, M., Evans, D. & Lovell, H. (2016). Dynamics of former ice lobes of the southernmost Patagonian Ice Sheet based on a glacial land systems approach. Journal of Quaternary Science DOI: 10.1002/jqs.2890.

Escribano, R., Fernández, M. & Aranís, A. (2003). Physical-chemical processes and patterns of diversity of the Chilean eastern boundary pelagic and benthic marine ecosystems: an overview. Gayana (Concepción), 67(2), 190-205.

Fernández, M., Jaramillo, E., Marquet, P. A., Moreno, C. A., Navarrete, S. A., Ojeda, F. P. & Vásquez, J. A. (2000). Diversity, dynamics and biogeography of Chilean benthic nearshore ecosystems: an overview and guidelines for conservation. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 73(4), 797-830.

González-Wevar, C. A., Hüne, M., Rosenfeld, S., Gérard, K., Mansilla, A. & Poulin, E. (2016). Patrones de diversidad y estructura genética en especies antárticas y subantárticas de Nacella (Nacellidae). Anales Instituto Patagonia (Chile), 44(3), 49-64.

Griffiths, H., Danis, B. & Clarke, A. (2011). Quantifying Antarctic marine biodiversity: the SCAR MarBin data portal. Deep Sea Research Part II: Tropical studies in Oceanography, 58(1), 18-29.

Gray, J. S. (2001). Antarctic marine benthic biodiversity in a world-wide latitudinal context. Polar Biology, 24(9), 633-641.

Gray, J. S. (2002). Species richness of marine soft sediments. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 244, 285-297.

Haussermann, V. (2006). Biodiversity of Chilean sea anemones (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): distribution patterns and zoogeographic implications, including new records for the fjord region. Investigaciones Marinas, 34, 23-35.

Hulton, N. R., Purves, R. S., McCulloch, R. D., Sugden, D. E. & Bentley, M. J. (2002). The last glacial maximum and deglaciation in southern South America. Quaternary Science Reviews, 21(1), 233-241.

Hunter, R. L. & K. M. Halanych. (2008). Evaluating connectivity in the brooding brittle star Astrotoma agassizii across the Drake Passage in the Southern Ocean. Journal of Heredity, 99(2), 13-148.

Kilian, R., Baeza, O., Steinke, T., Arevalo, M., Ríos, C. & Schneider, C. (2007). Late Pleistocene to Holocene marine transgression and thermnohaline control of sediment transport in the western Magallanes fjord system of Chile (53°S). Quaternary International, 161, 90-107.

Kilian R, & Lamy, F. (2012). A review of Glacial and Holocene paleoclimate records from southernmost Patagonia (49-55°S). Quaternary Science Reviews, 53, 1-23.

Kilian, R., Baeza, O., Breuer, S., Ríos, F., Arz, H., Lamy, L., Wirtz, J., Baque, D., Korf, P., Kremer, K., Ríos, C., Mutschke, E., Michels, S., De Pohl-Holz, R., Arévalo, M., Wörner, G., Schneider, C. & Casassa, G. (2013). Late Glacial and Holocene paleogeographical and paleoecological evolution of the Seno Skyring and Otway fjord systems in the Magellan region. Anales Instituto de la Patagonia, 41 (2), 5-26.

Lancellotti, D. A. & J. A. Vásquez. (1999). Biogeographical patterns of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Southeastern Pacific littoral. Journal of Biogeography, 26, 1001-1006.

Larraín, A., Mutschke, E., Riveros, A. & Solar, E. (1999). Preliminary report on Echinoidea and Asteroidea (Echinodermata) of the Joint Chilean-German-Italian Magellan Victor Hensen Campaign, 17 October-25 November 1994. Scientia Marina, 63(S1), 433-438.

Larraín, A. P. (1975). Los Equinoídeos Regulares Fósiles y Recientes de Chile. Gayana Zool. 35, 1-189.

López-Gappa, J. & Sueiro, M. C. (2007). The subtidal macrobenthic assemblages of Bahía San Sebastián (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina). Polar Biology, 30: 679-687.

Madsen, F. J. (1956). Asteroidea, with a survey of the Asteroidea of the Chilean shelf. Repts. of the Lund University Chile Expedition 1948-1949 Lunds. Universitets Aarskrift N. F. Avd. 2, 52(2), 53 pp.

Munilla, T. & Soler-Membrives, A. (2009). Check-list of the pycnogonids from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters: Zoogeographic implications. Antarctic Science, 21, 99-111.

Mutschke, E. & Ríos, C. (2006). Spatial distribution and relative abundance of echinoderms from the strait of Magellan, Chile. Ciencia y Tecnología del Mar, 29, 91-102.

Mutschke, E. (2008). Macrobenthic biodiversity and community structure in austral Chilean channels and fjords. In: Silva, N. & S. Palma (Eds.) Progress in the oceanographic knowledge of Chilean interior waters, from Puerto Mont to Cape Horn. pp 133-141. Comité Oceanográfico Nacional (CONA)-P. Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso.

Mutschke, E., Ríos, C., Aldea, C., Montiel, A., & Silva, F. (2016). Biodiversidad marina en Magallanes: equinodermos del Pabellón de Colecciones Edmundo Pisano V. Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, 44, 23-33.

Palma, S. & Silva, N. (2004). Distribution of siphonophores, chaetognaths and euphausiids and oceanographic conditions in the fjords and channels of southern Chile. Deep-Sea Research II, 51, 513-535.

Palma, M., Quiroga, E., Gallardo, V. A., Arntz, W., Gerdes, D., Schneider, W. & Hebbeln, D. (2005). Macrobenthic animal assemblages of the continental margin off Chile (22 to 42 S). Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 85(2), 233.

Pantoja, S., Iriarte, J. L. & Daneri, G. (2011). Oceanography of the Chilean Patagonia. Continental Shelf Research, 31(3), 149-153.

Pawson, D. L. (1966). The Echinoidea collected by the Royal Society of London Expedition to southern Chile, 1958-1959. Pacific Science, 20(2), 208-210.

Pawson, D. L. (1969). Holothuroidea from Chile. Report N.º 46 of the Lund University Chile Expedition 1948-1949. Sarsia, 38, 121-146.

Penchaszadeh, P. E., Bigatti, G. & Miloslavich, P. (2004). Feeding of Pseudechinus magellanicus (Philippi, 1857) (Echinoidea:Temnopleuridae) in the SW Atlantic coast (Argentina). Ophelia, 58: 91-99.

Pinochet, P. & Salinas, S. (1996). Estructura térmica y salina de canales y fiordos adyacentes a los campos de Hielo Sur. In: Comité Oceanográfico Nacional (ed.) Crucero de Investigación Científica Marina a los Fiordos y Canales adyacentes a Campos de Hielo Sur. pp. 15-25. Comité Oceanográfico Nacional, Chile.

Pérez-Ruzafa, A., Alvarado, J. J., Solís-Marín, F., ...(2013) Latin American echinoderm biodiversity and bigeography: patterns and affinities. In: Echinoderm research and diversity in Latin America, pp. 511-542. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Ríos, F., Kilian R. & Mutschke, E. (2016). Chlorophyll-a thin layers in the Magellan fjord system: The role of the water column stratification. Continental Shelf Research, 124, 1-12.

Ríos, C., Mutschke, E. & Montiel, A. (2013). Composition y estructura de la comunidad macrobentónicas en el sistema interior de canales y fiordos del extremo austral de Chile. Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, 41, 73-85.

Ríos, C., Mutschke, E., Montiel, E. Gerdes, D. & Arntz, W. (2005). Soft-bottom microbenthic faunal associations in the southern Chilean glacial fjord complex. Scientia Marina, 69(S2), 225-236.

Ríos, C. & Mutschke, E. (1999). Community structure of intertidal boulder-cobble fields in the Straits of Magellan, Chile. Scientia Marina, 63(S1), 193-201.

Silva, N. & Prego, R. (2002). Carbon and nitrogen spatial segregation and stoichiometry in the surface sediments of southern Chilean inlets (41–56 S). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 55(5), 763-775.

Sladen, W. P. (1889). Asteroidea. Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger 1873-76. 30, 1-893.

Sievers, H. A. & Silva, N. (2006). Masas de agua y circulación en los canales y fiordos australes. In N. Silva, & S. Palma, (Eds.), Avances en el conocimiento oceanográfico de las aguas interiores chilenas, Puerto Montt a cabo de Hornos. Comité Oceanográfico Nacional-Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso (pp. 53-58).

Valdovinos, C., Navarrete, S. A. & Marquet, P. A. (2003). Mollusk species diversity in the Southeastern Pacific: why are there more species towards the pole?. Ecography, 26, 139-144.

Viviani, C. A. (1979). Ecografía del litoral chileno. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 14, 65-123.



Download data is not yet available.