https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/antropologiaCuadernos de Antropología ISSN Impreso: 1409-3138 ISSN electrónico: 2215-356X

El tema de figura en silueta “Charlie Chaplin”: Un tema de Ejecutante Ritual de la América Media

David F. Mora-Marín



DOI: https://doi.org/10.15517/cat.v26i1.25274

Resumen


Este artículo provee evidencia para la definición y origen de un tema de figuras de jade que es común en Costa Rica.  Consiste de una figura de pie en pose ritual, y se argumenta que su origen se debe a la red de intercambio que conectó a los artesanos de jade de la Costa Rica precolombina y sus contemporáneos en la región maya de Mesoamérica.  En la región maya, los arqueólogos les llaman figuras de “Charlie Chaplin” por su característica pose con las rodillas dobladas y los pies orientados hacia los lados.  Se propone que este tema fue pan-mesoamericano, que pudo haber tenido origen en la tradición olmecas del preclásico medio y que pareciera ser el modelo para el tema del Gobernante como Eje del Mundo definido por varios escritores para las tradiciones olmecas y mayas.  Se sugiere que este tema fue adoptado por los artesanos de jade de la Costa Rica precolombina, quienes lo adaptaron a los cánones artísticos locales a través de la adición de rasgos estilísticos típicos de su tradición, y quienes posiblemente derivaron un tema nuevo, compuesto de una mezcla del tema de pendiente de ave celtiforme (dios hacha aviforme) y el tema de “Charlie Chaplin” difundido, resultando en el tema de pendiente antropomórfico celtiforme (dios hacha antropomórfico).  La red de intercambio que resultó en la difusión de este tema sirve para defender la necesidad de un marco teórico más inclusivo, un marco de la América Media (a diferencia de Centroamérica o Mesoamérica), para el estudio de las sociedades precolombinas de México y Centroamérica y posiblemente más allá, dada la posible presencia de este tema artístico en Colombia.

Palabras clave


Jade precolombino; Costa Rica; Maya; intercambio; iconografía.

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Referencias


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