Odovtos - International Journal of Dental Sciences ISSN Impreso: 1659-1046 ISSN electrónico: 2215-3411

OAI: https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/Odontos/oai
Effects of Whitening Dentifrices on the Enamel Color, Surface Roughness, and Morphology


Whitening dentifrices; Surface roughness; Scanning electron microscope; Tooth whitening; Tooth discoloration.
Dentífricos blanqueadores; Rugosidad de la superficie; Microscopio electrónico de barrido; Blanqueamiento dental; Decoloración dental.

How to Cite

Hazar, A., & Hazar, E. (2023). Effects of Whitening Dentifrices on the Enamel Color, Surface Roughness, and Morphology. Odovtos - International Journal of Dental Sciences, 25(2), 20–29. https://doi.org/10.15517/ijds.2022.50981


The aim of this study was to evaluate the whitening and abrasion effects of dentifrices containing different whitening agents on artificially stained and unstained enamel. 160 human dental enamel discs were distributed into four groups according to the type of dentifrices applied on them (n=40): Group I, non-whitening dentifrice (control group); Group II, dentifrice containing charcoal; Group III, dentifrice containing blue covarine; Group IV, dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide. Half of the specimens in each group were immersed in coffee solution. Color measurements were evaluated from stained and unstained specimens before and after brushing by a spectrophotometer. The surface roughness of each unstained specimen was analyzed using a profilometer after the brushing and bleaching. The surface of one randomly selected specimen from each group was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analysis of the color change was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The one-way ANOVA was used to evaluate surface roughness. Group III provided significantly higher recovery on ∆E00 values than other groups on the unstained enamel (p<0.05). Group IV showed significantly the highest ∆E00 values on stained enamel (p<0.05) and also Group IV showed the highest surface roughness values (p<0.05), SEM revealed a more irregular surface in groups III and IV. It can be stated that dentifrice containing blue covarine is both an effective and a safe way to provide whiter teeth with routine home tooth brushing.



Kwon S.R., Cortez E., Wang M., Jagwani M., Oyoyo U., Li Y. Systematic review of in vitro studies evaluating tooth bleaching efficacy. Am J Dent 2020; 33: 17-24.

Aydın N., Karaoğlanoğlu S., Oktay E.A., Ersöz B. Determination of the whitening effect of toothpastes on human teeth. Odovtos- Int J Dent Sc; 2022; 24: 67-75.

Zhao X., Zanetti F., Wang L., Malmstrom H., Majeed S., Peitsch M.C., Hoeng J., Ren Y. Effects of whitening toothpaste and bleaching treatment on resin composite discoloration caused by cigarette smoke and electronic vapor aerosol. Am J Dent 2021; 34: 63-69.

Nainan M.T., Balan A.K., Sharma R., Thomas S.S., Deveerappa S.B. The comparison of the effects of different whitening toothpastes on the micro hardness of a nano hybrid composite resin. J Conserv Dent 2014; 17: 550-554.

Panariello B.H., Azabi A.A., Mokeem L.S., AlMady F.A., Lippert F., Hara A.T., Duarte S. The effects of charcoal dentifrices on Streptococcus mutans biofilm development and enamel demineralization. Am J Dent 2020; 33: 12-16.

Dantas A.A.R., Bortolatto J.F., Roncolato Á., Merchan H., Floros M.C., Kuga M.C., Oliveira Junior O.B. Can a bleaching toothpaste containing Blue Covarine demonstrate the same bleaching as conventional techniques? An in vitro, randomized and blinded study. J Appl Oral Sci 2015; 23: 609-613.

Westland S, Luo W, Li Y, Pan Q, Joiner A. Investigation of the perceptual thresholds of tooth whiteness. J Dent 2017; 67: 11-14.

Philpotts C.J., Cariddi E., Spradbery P.S., Joiner A. In vitro evaluation of a silica whitening toothpaste containing blue covarine on the colour of teeth containing anterior restoration materials. J Dent 2017; 67: 29-33.

Shamel M., M Al-Ankily M., M Bakr M. Influence of different types of whitening tooth pastes on the tooth color, enamel surface roughness and enamel morphology of human teeth. F1000Res 2019; 8: 1764.

Tao D., Smith R.N., Zhang Q., Sun J.N., Philpotts C.J., Ricketts S.R., Naeeni M., Joiner A. Tooth whitening evaluation of blue covarine containing toothpastes. J Dent 2017; 67: 20-24.

Ertas E., Güler A.U., Yücel A.Ç., Köprülü H., Güler E. Color stability of resin composites after immersion in different drinks. Dent Mater J 2006; 25 :371-376.

Aydın N., Karaoglanoglu S., Oktay E.A. Investigation the effects of whitening toothpastes on color change of resin-based CAD/CAM blocks. J Esthet Restor Dent 2020; Jul 23. doi: 10.1111/jerd.12627.

Franco M.C., Uehara J., Meroni B.M., Zuttion G.S., Cenci M.S. The Effect of a Charcoal-based Powder for Enamel Dental Bleaching. Oper Dent 2020; 45: 618-623.

Sharma G., Wu W., Dalal E. The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula: implementation notes, supplementary test data, and mathematical observations. Color Res Appl 2005; 30: 21-30.

Gerlach R.W., Barker M.L., Sagel P.A. Objective and subjective whitening response of two self-directed bleaching systems. Am J Dent 2002; 15: 7-12.

Bergesch V., Aguiar F.H., Turssi C.P., França F.M.G., Basting R.T., Amaral F.L.B. Shade changing effectiveness of plasdone and blue covarine-based whitening toothpaste on teeth stained with chlorhexidine and black tea. Eur J Dent 2017; 11: 432-437.

Torres C.R.G., Perote L., Gutierrez N.C., Pucci C.R., Borges A.B. Efficacy of mouth rinses and toothpaste on tooth whitening. Oper Dent 2013; 38: 57-62.

Horn B.A., Bittencourt B.F., Gomes O.M., Farhat P.A. Clinical evaluation of the whitening effect of over-the-counter dentifrices on vital teeth. Braz Dent J 2014; 25: 203-206

De Menezes M., Turssi C.P., Hara A.T., Messias D.C.F., Serra M.C. Abrasion of eroded root dentine brushed with different toothpastes. Clin Oral Investig 2004; 8: 151-155.

Alshara S., Lippert F., Eckert G.J., Hara A.T. Effectiveness and mode of action of whitening toothpastes on enamel extrinsic stains. Clin Oral Investig 2014; 18: 563-569.

Lippert F. An introduction to toothpaste-its purpose, history and ingredients. Monogr Oral Sci 2013; 23: 1-14.

Vaz V.T.P., Jubilato D.P., de Oliveira M.R.M., Bortolatto J.F., Floros M.C., Dantas A.A.R., Junior OBO. Whitening toothpaste containing activated charcoal, blue covarine, hydrogen peroxide or microbeads: which one is the most effective? J Appl Oral Sci 2019; 27: e20180051.

Śmielecka M., Dorocka-Bobkowska B. Effects of different light sources on tooth shade selection. Dent Med Probl 2020; 57: 61-64.

Paravina R.D., Pérez M.M., Ghinea R. Acceptability and perceptibility thresholds in dentistry: a comprehensive review of clinical and research applications. J Esthet Restor Dent 2019; 31 :1-10.

Brooks J.K., Bashirelahi N., Reynolds M.A. Charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices: a literature review. J Am Dent Assoc 2017; 148: 661-670.

Jones C.S., Billington R.W., Pearson G.J. The in vivo perception of roughness of restorations. Br Dent J 2004; 196: 42-45.

Stout K.J. Surface roughness-Measurement, interpretation and significance of data. Mat Eng 1981; 2: 260-265.


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0


Download data is not yet available.