ía Mesoamericana ISSN electrónico: 2215-3608

Attempts to differentiate Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli using inorganic salts.

Mildred Zapata, Rosario Gaud


Strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp) isolated from common blight diseased bean leaves at Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic and Costa Rica were determined as pathogenic on the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. The strains determined by pathogenicity tests as pv. phaseoli were differentiated into pathovars such as phaseoli, vesicatoria, carotae, and xanthosoma by the use of the Biolog Identification System. Strains grown in 2, 3, 5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) showed a convex, shiny and smooth red pigment, a triphenyl formazan. No differences in virulence were found in the Xcp strains identified by pathogenicity tests. Two colony types were found in X. campestris. Also, colony types differences were found with Pseudomonas cissicola, P. fulva, Corynebacterium, Rhodococcus and Shingomonas.


ATHAYDA, J.T. 1983. Use of tetrazolium to detect virulence in Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis. Fitopatología Brasiliera 8 (2): 283-290.

BERRIDGE, M.V., TAN, A, MCCOY, K.D., WANG, R. 1996. The biochemical and cellular basis of cell proliferation assays that use tetrazolium salts. Biochemica 4: 14-19.

BERGEY’S MANUAL OF DETERMINATIVE BACTERIOLOGY. 1975. Eigth edition. William y Wilkins. p. 245.

DUFOUR, P., COLÓN, M. 1992. The tetrazolium reduction method for assessing the viability of individual bacterial cells in aquatic environments: improvements, performance and applications. Hydrobiologia 232:211-218.

GASOL, J.M., DEL GIORGIO, P.A., MASSANA, R., DUARTE, C.M. 1995. Active versus inactive bacteria: size-dependent in a coastal marine plankton community. Mar. Ecol. Prog.Ser. 128:91-97.

HAYWARD, A.C. 1960. Amethod of characterizing Pseudomonas solanacearum. Nature 186: 405-406.

HESKETT, M.G. 1970. Selective media for isolation of Agrobacterium solanacearum. Nature 186:405-406.

KADO,C.I., HESKETT, M.G. 1970. Selective media for isolation of Agrobacterium, Corynebacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas. Phytopathology 60:969-976.

KELMAN, A. 1954. The relationship of pathogenicity in Pseudomonas solanacearum to colony appearance on a tetrazolium medium. Phytopathology 44: 693- 695.

LEDERBERG, J. 1948. Detection of fermentative variants with tetrazolium. J. Bacteriology 56:695.

LOGAN, C. 1966. Simple method of differentiating Erwinia carotovora and E. atroseptica ‘aroidae’. Nature 212:1584-1585.

POSH, T., PERNTHALER, A., ALFREIDER, A., PSENNER, R. 1997. Cell-specific respiratory activity of aquatic bacteria studied with the tetrazolium reduction method, cyto-clear slides, and image analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63: 867-873.

RODRÍGUEZ, G. G., PHIPPS, D., ISHIGURO, K., RIDGWAY, H.F. 1992. Use of a fluorescence redox probe for direct visualization of actively respiring bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 1801-1808.

ROSLEV, P., KING, G.M. 1993. Application of a tetrazolium salt with a water-soluble formazan as an indicator of viability in respiring bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59: 2891-2896.

ROY, M.A., SASSER, M. 1983. A medium selective for Agrobacterium tumefaciens biotype 3 (abstract). Phytopathology 73:810.

SCUDIERO D.A.,SHOEMAKER, R.H., PAULL, K.D, MONKS, A., TIERNEY, S., NOFZIGER T.H., CURRENNS, M.J., SENNIFF, D., BOYD, M.R. 1988. Evaluation of a soluble tetrazolium/formazan assay for cell growth and drug sensitivity in culture using human and other tumor cell lines. Cancer Research 48: 4827- 4833.

THOM, S.M., HOROBIN, R.W., SEIDLER, D., BARER, M.R. 1993. Factors affecting the selection and use of tetrazolium salts as cytochemical indicators of microbial viability and activity. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 74:433-443.

VISTICA, D.T., SKEHAN, P., SCUDIERO, D., MONKS, A., PITTMAN, A., BOYD, M.R. 1991. Tetrazolium-based Assays for cellular viability: Acritical examination of selected parameters affecting formazan production. Cancer Research 51: 2515-2520.

ZIMMERMANN, R., ITURRIAGA, R., BECKER-FIRCK, J. 1978. Simultaneous determination of the total number of aquatic bacteria and the number thereof involved in respiration. Appl. Envirron. Microbiol. 36:926-935.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2014 Mesoamerican Journal of Agronomy

© 2017 Universidad de Costa Rica. Para ver más detalles sobre la distribución de los artículos en este sitio visite el aviso legal. Este sitio es desarrollado por UCRIndex y Open Journal Systems. ¿Desea cosechar nuestros metadatos? dirección OAI-PMH: