Livestock is an economic activity, dedicated to the breeding of animal species to take advantage of them and of its derivative products, as well as of livestock exploitation itself. However, when relating it to the sustainable use of natural resources in Northwest Mexico, there can be seen some situations that need to be addressed. The present study aims to analyze the production and conservation status of natural resources of beef cattle activity in the cow-calf system in Sonora, Mexico. The diagnosis was based on aspects of regionalization of livestock, the specific characteristics and issues of the systems, and the productive status of rangelands. The results showed that, despite the existence of signs of wildlife utilization and the importance of protecting the habitat status for livestock development in the state of Sonora, Mexico, it is important to implement a series of actions in order to increase the sustainable productivity of soil, soil water resources, the recovery of vegetation cover, improvement of livestock management practices, needs of research and technology transfer, as well as institutional linkage and training of professional human resources.