Abstract

The objective of this work was determine the adaptation of experimental maize hybrids in Costa Rica. Twenty four white grain experimental hybrids were evaluated in agroecological conditions of humid tropical forest during 2009-2011, at Concepción, Guagaral, Chánguena, El Águila, Veracruz, Los Chiles and Upala with temperatures between 26 and 35°C and rainfall between 2700-3200 mm, in order to evaluate its performance, yield and adaptation to major abiotic and biotic conditions. Trials were established in twelve locations using an alpha lattice design with three replications. The hybrids were evaluated in two planting cycles per location per year. The results of the combined analysis indicated significant differences between genotypes at 0.05, and AMMI-biplot graphs showed that the more stable materials were: CLQRCWQ121/ CLQRCWQ122)//CML491 (QPM); CML494/CML495 (Normal); (CLQRCWQ121/CLQRCWQ26)//CML491 (QPM); (CLQRCWQ121/CML502)//CML491 (QPM) with average yields of 9.3, 9.0, 8.7 and 8.8 t/ha, respectively. The locations where yield was higher were Guagaral and El Águila with 9.8 and 8.5 t/ha, respectively. As for the interaction of locations and genotypes, AMMI-biplots showed that locations Guagaral and El Águila offered more favorable growing conditions for the expression of the potential of the hybrids evaluated. Meanwhile, Veracruz and Concepción had less favorable growing conditions for the performance of the materials. AMMI analysis showed that PCA1 explains significantly genotype x environment interaction with a value of 62.1% in the test Gollob.
Keywords: genotypes, AMMI, QPM, Biplot, principal components.