Objective: Determine sexual dimorphism precision via palatal vault morphometric analysis in craniums sourced from the Laboratorio de Investigación Forense del Equipo Forense Especializado (EFE) de Ayacucho del Ministerio Público - Perú. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional design consisting of a sample of 43 skulls with pre-established biological gender, (24 males and 19 females). Sexual dimorphism was established by means of the method proposed by Meera Jacob and co., based on palatal width and length measurements, after which the palatal index was calculated, establishing the method’s precision and accuracy. The inferential analysis was made with a level of significance of 5% through the T student test, Shapiro Wilk and Pearson’s coefficient. Results: Palatal width had a mean of 3.43 (+0.31cm) for males and 3.62 (+0.25) for females and in palatal length a mean of 5.07 (+0.44) cm. for males and 4.79 (+0.41) cm. for females is established; on palatal index, 100% of the male skulls correspond to hard narrow palate and on females 73.7% to narrow, 21% to intermediate and 5.3% to wide. Furthermore, it was determined that there were statistically significant differences between width and length of palatal vault for both genders, and a discriminating analysis formula was proposed. Conclusion: Morphometric analyses of palatal vaults establish an 83.72% precision on the estimation of sexual dimorphism.

Keywords: Sexual dimorphism; Palatal vaults; Morphometric analysis.