The purpose of this study was to compare the average distances from the root apices of the first molars, second molars, and second premolars to the mandibular canal according to sex in the Peruvian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Eighty CBCT scans of Peruvian patients aged from 15-80 years were examined. After locating the mandibular canal, measurements of the vertical distances from the mandibular canal to the apices of the second premolars, as well as the first molars and second molars, were made. For the statistical analysis, Student’s t test was used for both paired and unpaired samples, with a significance level of p<0.05. On the right side, the second molar presented a mean distance of 3.99mm for males and 2.87mm for females, showing a significant difference (p<0.05). When compared bilaterally, no significant differences were found (p>0.05) between the distances from the apices of the second premolars and the first and second molars to the mandibular canal. However, for the second premolars and second molars on the left side, the values were higher, with averages of 5.52mm and 3.75mm, respectively.The mesial roots of the second molars were closer to the mandibular canal. In addition, women showed shorter distances than men.
Singh V. Textbook of Anatomy Head, Neck and Brain Volume III Second Edition. 2nd ed. India: Elsevier; 2014.
Kabak S.L., Zhuravleva N.V., Melnichenko Y.M. Topography of the mandibular nerve in human embryos and fetuses. an histomorphological study. J Oral Res. 2017; 6 (11): 291-8.
Wolf K.T., Brokaw E.J., Bell A., Joy A. Variant mandibular nerves and implications for local anesthesia. Anesth Prog. 2016; 63 (2): 84-90.
Puciło M., Lipski M., Sroczyk-Jaszczyńska M., Puciło A., Nowicka A. The anatomical relationship between the roots of erupted permanent teeth and the mandibular canal: a systematic review. Surg Radiol Anat. 2020; 42 (5): 529-42.
Kabak S.L., Zhuravleva N.V., Melnichenko Y.M., Savrasova N.A. Сross-Sectional Anatomic Study of Direct Positional Relationships Between Mandibular Canal and Roots of Posterior Teeth Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. J Oral Res. 2018; 7 (8): 292-8.
Libersa P., Savignat M. Neurosensory Disturbances of the Mandibular nerve : A Retrospective Study of Complaints in a 10-Year Period. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007; 1486-9.
Byun S., Kim S., Chung H., Lim H., Hei W., Woo J., et al. Surgical management of damaged mandibular nerve caused by endodontic overfilling of calcium hydroxide paste. Int Endod J. 2015; 1-10.
Yates J., Ali A.B.J. Risk of mandibular nerve injury with coronectomy vs surgical extraction of mandibular third molars- A comparison of two techniques and review of the literature. J Oral Rehabil. 2018; 45: 250-7.
Castro R., Guivarc’h M., Foletti J.M., Catherine J.H., Chossegros C., Guyot L. Endodontic-related mandibular nerve injuries: A review and a therapeutic flow chart. J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018; 119 (5): 412-8.
Doh R., Shin S., You T.M. Delayed paresthesia of mandibular nerve after dental surgery : case report and related pathophysiology. J Dent Anesth Pain Med. 2018; 18 (3): 177-82.
Tay A., J Z. Clinical characteristics of trigeminal nerve injury referrals to a university centre. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007; 36: 922-7.
Ahmad M. The Anatomical Nature of Dental Paresthesia: A Quick Review. Open Dent J. 2018; 12 (1): 155-9.
Pogrel M.A. Damage to the mandibular nerve as the result of root canal therapy. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007; 138 (1): 65-9.
MacDonald D. Cone-beam computed tomography and the dentist. J Investig Clin Dent. 2017; 8 (1): 1-6.
Nasseh I., Al-Rawi W. Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Dent Clin North Am. 2018; 62 (3): 361-91.
García-Sanz V., Bellot-Arcís C., Hernández V., Serrano-Sánchez P., Guarinos J., Paredes-Gallardo V. Accuracy and Reliability of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Linear and Volumetric Mandibular Condyle Measurements. A Human Cadaver Study. Sci Rep. 2017; 7 (1): 1-8.
Pagare S., Roy C., Vahanwala S., Gavand K., Waghmare M., Goyal S. Estimation of mandibular nerve proximitytothe root api-ces : A CBVI analysis. Int J Dent Res. 2018; 6 (1): 13.
Srnivasan K., Mohammadi M., Shepherd J. Applications of linac-mounted kilovoltage Cone-beam Computed Tomography in modern radiation therapy: A review. Polish J Radiol. 2014; 79: 181-93.
Hiremath H., Agarwal R., Hiremath V., Phulambrikar T. Evaluation of proximity of mandibular molars and second premolar to mandibular nerve canal among central Indians: A cone-beam computed tomographic retrospective study. Indian J Dent Res. 2016; 27 (3): 312-6.
Lvovsky A., Bachrach S., Kim H.C., Pawar A., Levinzon O., Ben Itzhak J., et al. Relationship between Root Apices and the Mandibular Canal: A Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Comparison of 3 Populations. J Endod. 2018; 44 (4): 555-8.
Choon O.W., Rahman S.A., Shaari R., Alam M.K. The validation of radiography images of romexis software. Int Med J. 2013; 20 (3): 349-51.
Pääsky E., Suomalainen A., Ventä I. Are women more susceptible than men to iatrogenic mandibular nerve injury in dental implant surgery? Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2022; 51 (2): 251-6.
Marinescu Gava M., Suomalainen A., Vehmas T., Ventä I. Did malpractice claims for failed dental implants decrease after introduction of CBCT in Finland? Clin Oral Investig. 2019; 23 (1): 399-404.
Sedaghatfar M., August M.A., Dodson T.B. Panoramic radiographic findings as predictors of mandibular nerve exposure following third molar extraction. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2005; 63 (1): 3-7.
Tilotta-Yasukawa F., Millot S., El Haddioui A., Bravetti P., Gaudy J.F. Labiomandibular paresthesia caused by endodontic treatment: an anatomic and clinical study. Oral Surgery, Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endodontology. 2006;102 (4).
Razumova S., Brago A., Howijieh A., Barakat H., Kozlova Y.R.N. Evaluation the Relationship between Mandibular Molar Root Apices and Mandibular Canal among Residents of the Moscow Population using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Technique. Contemp Clin Dent. 2022; 13 (1): 3-8.
Oliveira A.C.S., Candeiro G.T.M., Pacheco da Costa F.F.N., Gazzaneo I.D., Alves F.R.F., Marques F.V. Distance and Bone Density between the Root Apex and the Mandibular Canal: A Cone-beam Study of 9202 Roots from a Brazilian Population. J Endod. 2019; 45 (5): 538-542.e2.
Pearson A. The early innervation of the developing deciduous teeth. J Anat. 1977;123 (3): 563-77.
Krarup S., Darvann T.A., Larsen P., Marsh J.L., Kreiborg S. Three-dimensional analysis of mandibular growth and tooth eruption. J Anat. 2005; 207 (5): 669-82.
Björnerk A., Skieller V. Normal and abnormal growth of the mandible. A synthesis of longitudinal cephalometric implant studies over a period of 25 years. Eur J Orthod. 1983; 5 (1): 1-46.
Ahmed A.A., Ahmed R.M., Jamleh A., Spagnuolo G. Morphometric analysis of the mandibular canal, anterior loop, and mental foramen: A cone-beam computed tomography evaluation. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021; 18 (7): 1-11.
Simonton J.D., Azevedo B., Schindler W.G., Hargreaves K.M. Age-and Gender-related Differences in the Position of the Mandibular nerve by Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. J Endod. 2009; 35 (7): 944-9.
Schierz O., Dommel S., Hirsch C., Reissmann D.R. Occlusal tooth wear in the general population of Germany: Effects of age, sex, and location of teeth. J Prosthet Dent. 2014;112 (3): 465-71.
Bicaj T., Pustina T., Ahmedi E., Dula L., Lila Z., Tmava-Dragusha A., et al. The Relation between the Preferred Chewing Side and Occlusal Force Measured by T-Scan III System. Open J Stomatol. 2015; 05 (04): 95-101.
Gershenson A., Nathan H., Luchansky E. Mental foramen and mental nerve: Changes with age. Acta Anat (Basel). 1986; 126 (1): 21-8.
Angel J.S., Mincer H.H., Chaudhry J., Scarbecz M. Cone-beam Computed Tomography for Analyzing Variations in Inferior Alveolar Canal Location in Adults in Relation to Age and Sex. J Forensic Sci. 2011; 56 (1): 216-9.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2023 CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0