From the view of what Brown (2001) calls “Scientific Orthodoxy” three arguments stated by Chavarría (2001) in her introducing of the complexity paradigm are critically analyzed: 1. The modern scientific advances have demonstrated that objectivity in science is impossible and reality is uncertain and indeterminate; 2. The validity of scientific knowledge does not depend (or does not only depend) on cognitive criteria but essentially on social and political criteria, and 3. Scientific orthodoxy supports a methodological view of science, and the shortcomings and insufficiencies in the practice of many researchers (for example, lack of theory) are inherent features of quantitative and objective research. Therefore, it is concluded that education and training in social research cannot be based on a relativist view of reality and knowledge and on the confusing of science and ideology.

Keywords: Epistemology, ideology, objectivity, social research