Actualidades en Psicología ISSN Impreso: 0258-6444 ISSN electrónico: 2215-3535

Happiness Differences by Sex and Age in Peruvian University
PDF (Español (España))
HTML (Español (España))
XML (Español (España))


psicología positiva
positive psychology

How to Cite

Castilla, H., Caycho, T., & Ventura-León, J. L. (2016). Happiness Differences by Sex and Age in Peruvian University. Actualidades En Psicología, 30(121), 25–37.


The study, comparative descriptive, describes the differences of happiness in Peruvian youth and adults based on sex and age using the Lima Happiness Scale (Alarcon, 2006). 402 people, male (50 %) and women (50 %), between 16 and 35 years old (average = 19.59, SD = 3.75) of the city of Lima participated in the study. The results show that women are more likely to experience some degree of happiness; while people of the older age group have higher happiness scores than the younger age group. The results contribute to a better understanding of happiness and its relation to sociodemographic variables related to health and well-being. This provides important empirical information for the implementation of actions to promote the development of positive variables
PDF (Español (España))
HTML (Español (España))
XML (Español (España))


Alarcón, R. (2001). Relaciones entre felicidad, género, edad y estado conyugal. Revista de Psicología, 19(1), 27-46.

Alarcón, R. (2006). Desarrollo de una escala factorial para medir la felicidad. Revista Interamericana de Psicología, 40(1), 99-106.

Alarcón, R. (2009). Psicología de la felicidad. Introducción a la psicología positiva. Lima: Universidad Ricardo Palma.

Alarcón, R., & Caycho, T. (2015). Relaciones entre gratitud y felicidad en estudiantes universitarios de Lima Metropolitana. Psychologia: avances de la disciplina, 9(1), 59-69.

Argyle, M. (1990). Relaciones Sociales. En M. Hewstone, W. Stroebe, J. P. Codol y Stephenson, G. M. (Eds.) Introducción a la Psicología Social. Una perspectiva europea. (pág. 222-244) (J. F. Morales, Trad.). Barcelona, España: Ariel (Trabajo original publicado en 1988).

Bailey, T., Eng, W., Frisch, M., & Snyder, C. (2007). Hope and optimism as related to life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(3), 168-175. doi: 10.1080/17439760701409546

Blanchflower, D. G., & Andrew, J. O. (2000). Well-being over Time in Britain and the USA. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 7487. Disponible en

Bono, G., Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2004). Gratitude in practice and the practice of gratitude. En P. A. Linley y S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice, (pp. 464−481). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, & Sons, Inc.

Carstensen, L. L. (1991). Selective theory: Social activity in life-span contex. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 11,195-217.

Carstensen, L. L. (1995). Evidence for life-span theory of socioemotional selective. Current Directions in Psychologilcal Science, 4(5), 151-156.

Caycho, T. (2010). Variables psicológicas asociadas con la felicidad en centros peri-urbanos y urbano-marginales de Lima. Scientia UCV, 2(1), 61-68.

Costa, P. T., Zonderman, A. B., McCrae, R. R., Huntley, J. C., Locke, B. Z., & Barbano, H. E. (1987). Longitudinal analyses of psychological well-being in a national sample: Stability of mean levels. Journal of Gerontology, 42(1), 50-55.

Cuadra, H., & Florenzano, R. (2003). La psicología positiva: un cambio a nuestro enfoque patológico clásico. Liberabit, 10, 82-88.

Chen, H., & Chen, J. (2008). Estructural equation modeling: Hope, coping styles and emotions of impoverished undergraduates. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology. 16(4), 392-394.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2008). El yo evolutivo. Una psicología para un mundo globalizado. Barcelona: Kairos.

Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95(3), 542-575.

Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, R., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of personality assessment, 49(1), 71-75. doi: 10.1207/ s15327752jpa4901_13

Diener, E., & Suh, M. E. (1998). Subjective well-being and age: An international analysis. En S. K. Wamer y L. M. Powell (Eds.), Annual review of gerontology and geriatric (pp. 304-324). Nueva York: Spinger Publishing.

Diener, E. (1994). Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities. Social Indicators Research, 31(2), 103–157. doi: 10.1007/BF01207052

Diener, E., Suh, E., Lucas, R., & Smith, H. (1999). Subjective well-being: three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 271-301. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.125.2.276

Diener, E., & Diswas, R. (2008). Happiness. Unlocking the Mysteries of psychological wealth. E. U. A.: Blackwell Publishing.

Easterlin, R. A. (2003). Happiness of Women and Men in Later Life: Nature, Determinants, and Prospects. En M. J. Sirgy, D. Rahtz y J. Samli (Eds.). Advances in Quality-of-Life Theory and Research. (pp. 13-26). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377-89. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.377

Emmons, R. A. (2008). Gratitude, subjective well-being, and the brain. En M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The Science of Subjective Wellbeing (pp. 469- 489). New York: Guilford Press.

Erceg-Hurn, D., & Mirosevich, V. (2008). Modern robust statistical methods: An easy way to maximize the accuracy and power of your research. American Psychologist, 63(7), 591-601. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.63.7.591

Francis, L. J. (1999). Happiness is a thing called stable extraversion: a further examination of relationship between the Oxford Happiness Inventory and Eysenck´s dimensional model of personality and gender. Personality and Individual Differences, 26(1), 5-11. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00185-8

Frey, B. S., & Stutzer, A. (2000) Happiness, Economy and Institutions. Economic Journal, 110(446), 918–38. doi: 10.1111/1468-0297.00570

Grissom, R. J. (1994). Probability of the superior outcome of one treatment over another. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(2), 314 –316. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.79.2.314

Halama, P. (2010). Hope as a mediator between personality traits and life satisfaction. Studia Psychologica, 52(4), 309-314.

Hernández, R., Fernández, C., & Baptista, P. (2010). Metodología de la investigación. México: Mc Graw Hill.

Inglehart, R. (2002). Gender, aging, and subjective well-being. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 43(3- 5), 391-408. doi: 10.1177/002071520204300309

Kashdan, T. B., Mishra, A., Breen, W. E., & Froh, J. J. (2009). Gender differences in gratitude: Examining appraisals, narratives, the willingness to express emotions, and changes in psychological needs. Journal of Personality, 77(3), 691–730. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00562.x

Labouvie-Vief, G., & Blanchard-Fields, F. (1982). Cognitive ageing and psychological growth. Ageing and Society, 2(2), 183-209. doi: 10.1017/ S0144686X00009429

Laca, F., Verdugo, J., & Guzman, M. (2005). Satisfacción con la vida de algunos colectivos mexicanos: una discusión sobre la psicología del bienestar subjetivo. Enseñanza en Investigación en Psicología, 10(2), 325-336.

Lindfors, P., & Lundberg, U. (2002). Is low cortisol release an indicator of positive health?. Stress and Health, 18(4), 153-160. doi: 10.1002/smi.942

Lippa, R. (2005). Gender, nature, and nurture (2 ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Lu, L. (1996). Correlates of happiness among the Chinese people. Taipei, Taiwan, ROC: National Science Council.

Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). La ciencia de la felicidad. Un método para conseguir el bienestar. España: Urano.

Macnulty, W. K. (2004). Self-schemas, forgiveness, gratitude, physical health, and subjective well being. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65, 2683B.

Makinen, J. A., & Jhonson, S. M. (2006). Resolving attachment injuries in couples using emotionally focused therapy: Step toward forgiveness and reconciliation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(6), 1055-1064. doi: 10.1037/0022- 006X.74.6.1055

Michalos, A. C. (1995a). Tecnología y calidad de vida. Intervención Psicosocial, 4(10), 51-55.

Michalos, A. C. (1995b). Introducción a la teoría de las discrepancias múltiples [TDM]. Intervención Psicosocial, 4(12), 99-115.

Montero, O., & León, I. (2007). A guide for naming studies in psychology. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7(3), 847-862.

Mookherjee, H. N. (1997). Marital status and perception of well-being. The Journal of Social Psychology, 137(1), 95-105.

Moyano, E., & Ramos, N. (2007). Bienestar subjetivo: midiendo satisfacción vital, felicidad y salud en población chilena de la Región Maule. Universum, 22(2), 177-193.

Mroczek, D. K., & Kolarz, C. M. (1998). The effect of age on positive and negative affect: A developmental perspective on happiness. Journal Personality and Social Psychology, 75(5), 1333-1349. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.75.5.1333

Myers, D. G. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist, 55(1), 56-67. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.56

Myers, D. G., & Diener, E. (1996). The pursuit of happiness. Scientific American, 274(5), 70-72.

Nydegger, R. (2004). Gender and mental health: Incidence and treatment issues. En M. A. Paludi (Ed.), Praeger guide to the psychology of gender (pp. 93– 116). Westport: Praeger/Greenwood.

Niven, D. (2011). Los 100 secretos de la gente feliz. Colombia: Norma.

Pavot, W., Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1990). Extraversion and happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 11(12), 1299-1306. doi: 10.1016/0191- 8869(90)90157-M

Romero, M. V. (2015). La gratitud como fortaleza humana: una revisión bibliográfica. Recuperado de Romero_Gonzlez_MVictoria_TFG_Psicologa.pdf

Russo, N. F., & Green, B. L. (1993). Women and mental health. En F. L. Denmakr & M. A. Paludi (Eds.), Psychology of women: A handbook of issues and theories (pp. 379–436). Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., & Love, G. D. (2004). Positive health: Connecting well-being with biology. Philosophical Transactions-Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences, 359, 1383-1394.

Salgado, A. C. (2009). Felicidad, resiliencia y optimismo en estudiantes de colegios nacionales de la Ciudad de Lima. Liberabit, 2(15), 133-141.

Seligman, M. E. P. & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: an introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5-14.

Seligman, M. (2006). La auténtica felicidad. Buenos Aires: Vergara.

Seligman, M. (2011). La auténtica felicidad. España: Byblos.

Tesch-Römer, C., Motel-Klingebiel, A., & Tomasik, M. J. (2008). Gender differences in subjective well-being: Comparing societies with respect to gender equality. Social Indicators Research, 85(2), 329-349. doi: 10.1007/s11205-007-9133-3

Veenhoven, R. (2005). Lo que sabemos de la felicidad. En E. L. Garduño., A. B. Salinas y H. M. Rojas (Eds.), Calidad de vida y bienestar subjetivo en México (pp. 17-55). México: Plaza y Valdés.

Wood, W., Rhoes, N., & Whelan, M. (1989). Sex differences in positive well-being: a consideration of emotional style and marital status. Psychological Bulletin, 106(2), 249-264. doi: 10.1037/0033- 2909.106.2.249

World Economic Forum (2015). The Global Gender Gap Report 2015. Disponible en http://www3.weforum. org/docs/GGGR2015/cover.pdf



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...