Blood glucose homeostasis is a tightly regulated mechanism in humans, both during resting and physical exercise. However, in diabetic patients insulin levels do not respond normally during exercise, and therefore, peripheral and hepatic glucose utilization is impaired. Nonetheless, exercise has been widely recommended for the diabetic patient due to the known benefits for glucose regulation. Hypertension or elevated arterial pressure level is a pathology often related to diabetes. When an exercise prescription needs to be given to hypertensive patients, it is necessary to remember that resistance training (weight training) does not improve cardiovascular function; however, metabolism is increased due to a higher muscle mass and an enhanced bone health.This paper was written thinking in physical educators and human movement scientists who require current resistance training guidelines for designing exercise programs for diabetic and hypertensive students. This review is also relevant for people interested in starting a physical activity program ,specially those involved in resistance or weight training programs.