Current understanding of Cuban ichneumonids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) is analysed. A new Subfamily (Tersilochinae) including 13 genera and two species are first reports for Cuba. In contrast with Braconidae, the sister group, the ichneumonids are poorly known because of the lack of local taxonomists and bacause nets, rather than interception, light and yellow pan traps have been used. Using Ophioninae as a reference, and comparing the percentage of ophionines in the fauna of Costa Rican ichneumonids, the ratio of species of Costa Rican to Cuban Ophioninae and the increase in the  number of described Cuban ophionines, we suggest that actual Cuban biodiversity in this group may be between 400 and 600 species.