Association of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism to gastric cancer risk in a hight risk population of Costa Rica
Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer associated death cause worldwide. Several factors have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer, among them genetic predisposition. The p53 gene has a polymorphism located at codon 72, which has been associated with higher risk of several types of cancer, including gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the association of p53, codon 72 polymorphism, with the risk of gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions in a high-risk population from Costa Rica. The genotyping was carried out by PCR-RFLP in 58 gastric cancer patients, 99 controls and 41 individuals classified as group I or II, according to the Japanese histological classification. No association was found for p53, codon 72 polymorphism with neither the risk of gastric cancer nor the risk of less severe gastric lesions in the studied population. Based on this study and taking into account other studies carried out with p53, codon 72 polymorphism, the role of this polymorphism in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. De novo mutations on p53 gene produced during neoplasic development of this disease might play a greater role than germinal polymorphisms of the gene. Other polymorphic genes have been associated with higher risk to develop gastric cancer.