Revista de Biología Tropical ISSN Impreso: 0034-7744 ISSN electrónico: 2215-2075

Seed morphology and post-seminal development in species of Comanthera (Eriocaulaceae)
HTML (Español (España))
PDF (Español (España))


morfología de semillas
seed morphology
everlasting plants

How to Cite

Dugarte Corredor, B. A., Escobar Escobar, D. F., & Scatena, V. L. (2015). Seed morphology and post-seminal development in species of Comanthera (Eriocaulaceae). Revista De Biología Tropical, 63(4), 1127–1135.


Comanthera brasiliana, C. magnifica and C. suberosa (Eriocaulaceae) are included in the Brazilian list of endangered species, due to intensive harvest and micro-endemism. These species form the clade of Comanthera magnifica, along with C. brunnea and C. linearis. Germination, seed morphology and post-seminal development were studied aiming to characterize all five species and to provide information for their conservation. Seeds were collected in “campos rupestres” of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Seed morphology was examined using scanning electron microscope. For germination tests, mature seeds were placed in Petri dishes lined with filter paper dampened with distilled water at 25 °C and fluorescent light; four repetitions with 15 seeds were performed for each species. For the anatomical analysis of post-seminal development, seedlings at different developmental stages were included in historesin, cut with a rotatory microtome and examined under a light microscope. The structure of the seed coat and the shape and size of the seeds were characteristics that allowed species differentiation, and based on the seeds morphological characteristics, an identification key is provided. The seed germination was high (> 90 %) and fast (< 7 days). Germination occured through the axis protrusion of the embryo. Approximately four days after germination, the first leaf develops and is followed by the adventitious roots. After 10-15 days, the second leaf and the new adventitious roots develop. In field conditions, the studied species occur in quartzite soils and their small seeds (dust-like type) germinate faster than the other Eriocaulaceae species (from mesic soils). These results provide reliable information that may contribute to the species management and conservation.
HTML (Español (España))
PDF (Español (España))


Barreto, L., Echternacht L., & García, Q. S. (2013). Seed coat sculpture in Comanthera (Eriocaulaceae) and its implications on taxonomy and phylogenetics. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 299, 1461-1469.

Biodiversitas. (2007). Revisão das listas das espécies da flora e da fauna ameaçadas de extinção do Estado de Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte: Fundação Biodiversitas & Fundação ZooBotânica de Belo Horizonte.

Coan, A. I., Stützel, T., & Scatena, V. L. (2010). Comparative embryology and taxonomic considerations in Eriocaulaceae (Poales). Feddes Repertorium, 121(7-8), 268-284.

Coomes, D. A., & Grubb, P. J. (2003). Colonization, tolerance, competition and seed size variation within functional groups. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 283-291.

Dalhgren, R. M. T., Clifford, H. T., & Yeo, P. F. (1985). The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution and taxonomy. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Echternacht L., Sano, P. T., Bonillo, C., Cruaud, C., Couloux, A., & Dubuisson, J.-Y. (2014). Phylogeny and taxonomy of Syngonanthus and Comanthera (Eriocaulaceae): Evidence from expanded sampling. Taxon, 63(1), 47-63.

Eriksson, O. (2005). Game theory provides no explanation for seed size variation in grasslands. Oecologia, 114, 98-105.

Eriksson, O., & Kainulainen, K. (2011). The evolutionary ecology of dust seeds. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 13, 73-87.

Feder, N., & O’Brien, T. (1968). Plant microtechnique: some principles and new methods. American Journal of Botany, 55, 123-142.

Fenner, M., & Thompson, K. (2005). Germination. In M. Fenner & K. Thompson (Eds.), The Ecology of Seeds (pp. 110-135). Cambridge University Press.

Franco, A. C. (2002). Ecophysiology of woody plants. In P. S. Oliveira & R. J. Marquis (Eds.), The Cerrados of Brazil: ecology and natural history of a neotropical savanna (pp. 178-197). New York: Columbia University Press.

García, Q. S., & Diniz, I. S. S. (2003). Comportamento germinativo de três espécies de Vellozia da Serra do Cipó (MG). Acta Botanica Brasilica, 17(4), 487-494.

Giulietti, N., Giulietti, A. M., Pirani, J. R., & Menezes, N. L. (1988). Estudos em sempre-vivas: importância econômica do extrativismo em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 1(2), 179-193.

Giulietti, A. M., & Hensold, N. (1991). Synonymization of the genera Comanthera and Carptotepala with Syngonanthus (Eriocaulaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 78, 460-464.

Giulietti, A. M., Monteiro, W. R., Mayo, S. J., & Stephens, J. (1988). A preliminary survey of testa sculpture in Eriocaulaceae. Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen, 62, 189-209.

Giulietti, A. M., & Pirani, J. R. (1988). Patterns of geographic distribution of some plant species from the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil. In W. R. Heyer & P. E. Vanzolini (Eds.), Proceedings of a workshop on Neotropical Distribution Patterns (pp. 39-69). Rio de Janeiro: Academia Brasileira de Ciências.

Hare, L. (1950). The structure and development of Eriocaulon septangulare With. Journal of the Linnean Society, 53, 422-448.

Jacobi, C. M., Carmo, F. F., Vincent, R. C., & Stehmann, J. R. (2007). Plant communities on ironstone outcrops: a diverse and endangered Brazilian ecosystem. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16, 2185-2200.

Johansen, D. A. (1940). Plant Microtechnique. New York: Mc Graw Hill Book.

Kraus, J. E., Scatena, V. L., Lewinger, M. E., & Trench, K. U. S. (1996). Morfologia externa e interna de quatro espécies de Paepalanthus Kunth (Eriocaulaceae) em desenvolvimento pós-seminal. Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo, 15, 45-53.

Mercier, H., & Gerreiro-Filho, O. (1989). Germinação de Pleurostima fanniei Menezes, Pleurostima rogieri (Hort. ex Moore e Ayres) Menezes e Vellozia alata L.B. Smith (Velloziaceae) sob diferentes condições de luz e temperatura. Hoehnea, 16, 195-202.

MMA. (2008). Lista oficial das espécies da flora Brasileira ameaçadas de extinção. Brasília: Ministério do Meio Ambiente.

Nair, R. (1987). Taxonomic significance of seed coat morphology in Eriocaulon L. (Eriocaulaceae). Seed Science Technology, 15, 297-310.

Oliveira, P. E. (2008). Fenologia e biologia reprodutiva das espécies de cerrado. In S. M. Sano & S. P. Almeida (Eds.), Cerrado: ambiente e flora (pp. 169-192). Planaltina: EMBRAPA-CPAC.

Oliveira, M. N. S., Cruz, S. M., Sousa, A. M., Moreira, F. da C., & Tanaka, M. K. (2014). Implications of the harvest time on Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae) management in the state of Minas Gerais. Brazilian Journal of Botany, 37(2), 95-103.

Oliveira, P. G., & Garcia, Q. S. (2005). Efeitos da luz e da temperatura na germinação de sementes de Syngonanthus elegantulus Ruhland, S. elegans (Bong.) Ruhland e S. venustus Silveira (Eriocaulaceae). Acta Botanica Brasílica, 19(3), 639-645.

Oliveira, P. G., & Garcia, Q. S. (2011). Germination characteristics of Syngonanthus seeds (Eriocaulaceae) in campos rupestres vegetation in south-eastern Brazil. Seed Science Research, 21, 39-45.

Oliveira-Filho, A. T., & Ratter, J. A. (2002). Vegetation physiognomies and woody flora of the Cerrado biome. En P. S. Oliveira & R. J. Marquis (Eds.), The Cerrados of Brazil: Ecology and natural history of a Neotropical savanna (pp. 91-120). New York: Columbia University Press.

Parra, L. R., Giulietti, A. M., Gomes de Andrade, M. J., & van den Berg, C. (2010). Reestablishment and new circumscription of Comanthera (Eriocaulaceae). Taxon, 59(4), 1135-1146.

Pons, T. L. (2000). Seed responses to light. En M. Fenner (Ed.), Seeds: The ecology of regeneration in plant communities (pp. 237-260). 2nd ed. Walligford: CABI Publishing.

Ramaswamy, S. N., Arekal, G. D., & Raju, M. V. S. (1983). Developmental anatomy of seed coat and pericarp in two species of Eriocaulon L. (Eriocaulaceae). Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 110, 287-291.

Ranal, M. A., & Santana, D. G. (2006). How and why to measure the germination process? Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 29, 1-11.

Scatena, V. L., & Bouman, F. (2001). Embryology and seed development of Paepalanthus sect. Actinocephalus (Körn.) Ruhland (Eriocaulaceae). Plant Biology, 3, 341-350.

Scatena, V. L., Lemos-Filho, J. P., & Lima, A. A. A. (1996). Morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal de Syngonanthus elegans e S. niveus (Eriocaulaceae). Acta Botanica Brasílica, 10, 85-91.

Scatena, V. L., Menezes, N. L., & Stützel, T. (1993). Embriology and seedling development in Syngonanthus rufipes Silv. (Eriocaulaceae). Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen, 67, 333-343.

Silveira, F. A. O., Ribeiro, R. C., Oliveira, D. M. T., Fernandes, G. W., & Lemos-Filho, J. P. (2011). Evolution of physiological dormancy multiple times in Melastomataceae from Neotropical montane vegetation. Seed Science Research, 22(01), 37-44.

Swaine, M. D., & Whitemore, T. C. (1988). On the definition of ecological species groups in tropical rain forests. Vegetatio, 75(1-2), 81-86.

Terra Brasilis, Instituto. (1999). Projeto sempre-vivas: subsídios para seu uso sustentado. Publicado por Instituto Terra Brasilis.

Turnbull, L. A., Coomes, D., Hector, A., & Rees, M. (2004). Seed mass and the competition/colonization trade-off: a sowing experiment. Journal of Ecology, 92, 97-109.

Vázquez-Yánes, C., & Orozco-Segovia, A. (1990). Ecological significance of light controlled seed germination in two contrasting tropical habitats. Oecologia, 83(2), 171-175.

Zona, S., Davis, P., Gunathilake, L. A. A. H., Prince, J., & Horn, J. W. (2012). Seeds of Eriocaulaceae of the United States and Canada. Castanea, 77(1), 37-45.



Download data is not yet available.