Abstract

A new member of the genus Osteocephalus is described from the Pakaraima mountains of western Guyana. This species is the smallest known member of the genus and is probably closely related to O. subtilis. Both share a small size (less than 40 mm snout-vent length), large and bulgy eyes directed somewhat rostrally, green bones, smooth and brownish dorsal skin, relatively short and truncate snout, small tympanum, subgular and laterally expanded vocal sac, poorly developed subarticular and supernumerary tubercles, a supra-anal glandular ridge, and cream-white venter and subocular region. The new species can be distinguished from O. subtilis by the Buff iris (vs black), smaller overall size (32.7 vs 35.8–38.8 mm snout-vent length), relatively larger toe disks, and less developed foot webbing. The cranium of the new species is well ossified, relatively reduced in width between the orbits, without an exposed frontoparietal fontanelle and with the anterior arm of the squamosal extending to about half the distance to the maxillary. The vocal sac is subgularly poorly developed and possess lateral extensions to the area behind the jaw angles. Well developed supraocular and suprasquamosal cartilages give support to the enlarged eyes of this species.
Keywords: anura, hylidae, osteocephalus, new species, guyana, osteology, myology