Revista de Biología Tropical ISSN Impreso: 0034-7744 ISSN electrónico: 2215-2075

Cellular development of the germinal epithelium during the gametogenic cycle of the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia: Mytilidae)
PT 64-2 JUN 2016

Supplementary Files

Letter to Editor
Letter to Finance Department


Limnoperna fortunei.
Limnoperna fortunei

How to Cite

Dei Tos, C., Quagio Grassiotto, I., & Mazzoni, T. S. (2016). Cellular development of the germinal epithelium during the gametogenic cycle of the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia: Mytilidae). Revista De Biología Tropical, 64(2), 521–536.


The golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei is an invasive species that has quickly dispersed and colonized several potential different habitats distributed all over the world, causing environmental and economic impacts. Thus, in order to contribute to a better understanding of the reproductive aspects of L. fortunei, we described the cellular dynamic of the male and female germinal epithelium during the annual reproductive life history of this species, with the use of high resolution histology. An approximate of 1 200 specimens of L. fortunei were sampled periodically on the upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil), from March 2010 to December 2012. Based on the activity of the germinal epithelium and consequent germ cell development, this study has resulted in the recognition of the following reproductive phases: Developing, Spawning Capable, Regressing and Regenerating. In the characterization of these phases, the following germ cells were described for males: spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. Cell nests, oogonia, early prophase oocytes, previtellogenic oocytes and vitellogenic oocytes (early vitellogenic oocytes, middle vitellogenic oocytes and full-grown oocytes) were described for females. The morphological data and reproductive parameters obtained, showed the value of the cellular dynamics of the germinal epithelium, for the understanding of the cyclic gonadal events during the adult reproductive life of the mollusk in general.

These results on the gametogenesis of this invasive species may be a fundamental tool for the development of control strategies and programs implementation, to reduce their proliferation and impacts in natural local environments.


Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J, Raff, M., Roberts, K., & Walter, P. (2008). Molecular biology of the cell (5th ed). New York: Garland Science.

Boltovskoy, D., Sylvester, F., Otaegui, A., Leites, V., & Cataldo, D. H. (2009). Environmental modulation of reproductive activity of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei: implications for antifouling strategies. Austral Ecology, 34(7), 719-730.

Boltovskoy, D., Morton, B., Correa, N., Cataldo, D., Damborenea, C., Penchaszadeh, P. E., & Sylvester, F. (2015). Reproductive output and seasonality of Limnoperna fortunei. In D. Boltovskoy (Ed.), Limnoperna Fortunei: The Ecology, Distribution and Control of a Swiftly Spreading Invasive Fouling Mussel (pp.77-103). Switzerland: Springer.

Boltovskoy, D., & Correa, N. (2015). Ecosystem impacts of the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) in South America. Hydrobiologia, 746, 81-95.

Brugnoli, E., Clemente, J., Boccardi, L., Borthagaray, A., & Scarabino, F. (2005) Golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) distribution in the main hydrographical basins of Uruguay: update and predictions. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 77(2), 235-244.

Callil, C. T., Gomes, A. L. T., & Soares, A. C. P. V. (2012). A gametogênese em Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857). In M. C. D. Mansur, C. P. Santos, D. Pereira, I. C. P. Paz, M. L. L. Zurita, M. T. R. Rodriguez, M. V. Nehrke, & P. E. A. Bergonci (Eds.), Moluscos límnicos invasores no Brasil: biologia, prevenção e controle (pp. 111-118). Porto Alegre: Redes Editora.

Campos, M. C. S., Andrade, A. F. A., Kunzmann, B., Galvão, D. D., Silva, F. A., Cardoso, A. V., Carvalho, M. D., & Mota, H. R. (2014). Modelling of the potential distribution of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) on a global scale. Aquatic Invasions, 9, 253-265.

Çek, S., & Sereflisan, H. (2006). Certain reproductive characteristics of the freshwater mussel Unio terminalis delicates (Lea, 1863) in Golbasi Lake, Turkey. Aquaculture Research, 37, 1305-1315.

Damborenea, C., & Penchaszadeh, P. E. (2006). Biología reproductiva de Limnoperna fortunei. In G. Darrigran & M. C. Damborenea (Eds.), Bio-invasión del mejillón dorado en el continente americano (pp. 71-84). La Plata: Edulp.

Darrigran, G. A., Damborenea, M. C., & Penchaszadeh, P. E. (1998). A case of hermaphroditism in the freshwater invading bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Mytilidae) from Rio de la Plata, Argentina. Iberus, 16(2), 99-104.

Darrigran, G., Penchaszadeh, P., & Damborenea, M. C. (1999). The reproductive cycle of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Mytilidae) from a Neotropical temperate locality. Journal of Shellfish Research, 18, 361-365.

Darrigran, G., Penhaszadeh, P., & Damborenea, M. C. (2000). An invasion tale: Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) (Mytilidae) in the Neotropics. In R. Claudi (Ed.), Proceedings 10th International Aquatic Nuisance Species and Zebra-Mussels Conference (pp. 219-224). Toronto, Canada.

Darrigran, G. (2002). Potential impact of filter-feeding invaders on temperate inland freshwater environments. Biological Invasions, 4, 145-156.

Darrigran, G., Damborenea, C., Penchaszadeh, P., & Taraborelli, C. (2003). Adjustments of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) after ten years of invasion in the Americas. Journal of Shellfish Research, 22, 141-146.

Darrigran, G., & Damborenea, C. (2006). Característica de la espécies. In G. Darrigran & M. C. Damborenea (Eds.), Bio-invasión del mejillón dorado en el continente americano (pp. 55-70). La Plata: Edulp.

Franco, A., Heude-Berthelin, C., Goux, D., Sourdaine, P., & Mathieu, M. (2008). Fine structure of the early stages of spermatogenesis in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Tissue Cell, 40, 251-260.

Franco, A., Jouaux, A., Mathieu, M., Sourdaine, P., Lelong, C., Kellner, K., & Berthelin, C. H. (2010). Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in gonad and associated storage tissue of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas: seasonal immunodetection and expression in laser microdissected tissues. Cell and Tissue Research, 340, 201-210.

Franco, A., Kellner, K., Goux, D., Mathieu, M., & Heude-Berthelin, C. (2011). Intragonadal somatic cells (ISCs) in the male oyster Crassostrea gigas: morphology and contribution in germinal epithelium structure. Micron, 42, 718-725.

Garton, D. W., & Haag, W. R. (1993). Seasonal reproductive cycles and settlement patterns of Dreissena polymorpha in Western Lake Erie. In T. F. Nalepa, & D. Schloesser (Eds.), Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control (pp. 111-128). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Lubert, P. (1959). Recherches sur le cycle sexuel et l´emission des gametes chez les Mytilides et les Pectinides (Mollusques, Bivalves). Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Peches Maritimes, 23, 389-549.

Mello, M. L., & Vidal, B. C. (1980). Práticas de Biologia Celular. São Paulo: Edgard Blucher.

Morton, B. (1973). Some aspects of the biology and functional morphology of the organs of feeding and digestion of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker) (Bivalvia: Mytilacea). Malacologia, 12, 265-281.

Morton, B. (1977). The population dynamics of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker 1857) (Bivalvia: Mytilacea) in Plover Cove Reservoir, Hong Kong. Malacologia, 16, 165-182.

Morton, B. (1982). The reproductive cycle in Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) Bivalvia: Mytilidae) fouling Hong Kong’s raw water supply system. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 13, 319-325.

Oliveira, M. D., Calheiros, D. F., Jacobi, C. M., & Hamilton, S. K. (2011). Abiotic factors controlling the establishment and abundance of the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei. Biological Invasions, 13, 717-729.

Oliveira, M. D. de, Ayroza, D. M. R., Castellani, D., Campos, M. de C. S., & Mansur, M. C. D. (2014). O mexilhão dourado nos tanques-rede das pisciculturas das regiões Sudeste e Centro-Oeste. Panorama da Aquicultura, 24(145), 22-29.

Pipe, R. K. (1987). Ultrastructural and cytochemical study on interactions between nutrient storage cells and gametogenesis in the mussel Mytilus edulis. Marine Biology, 96, 519-528.

Puchtler, H., & Waldrop, F. W. (1978). Silver impregnation methods for reticulum fibers and reticulin: A re-investigation of their origins and specificity. Histochemistry, 57, 177-187.

Quintero-Hunter, I., Grier, H., & Muscato, M. (1991). Enhancement of histological detail using metanil yellow as counter stain in Periodic Acid Schiff´s hematoxylin staining of glycol methacrylate tissue sections. Biotechnic and Histochemistry, 66, 169-172.

Santos, S. B., Thiengo, S. C., Fernandez, M. A., Miyahira, I. C., Gonçalves, I. C. B., Ximenes, R. de F., Mansur, M. C. D., & Pereira, D. (2012). Espécies de moluscos límnicos invasores no Brasil. In M. C. D. Mansur, C. P. Santos, D. Pereira, I. C. P. Paz, M. L. L. Zurita, M. T. R. Rodriguez, M. V. Nehrke, & P. E. A. Bergonci (Eds.), Moluscos límnicos invasores no Brasil: biologia, prevenção e controle (pp. 25-49). Porto Alegre: Redes Editora.

Saucedo, P., & Southgate, P. C. (2008). Reproduction, Development and Growth. In P. C. Southgate, & J. S. Luca (Eds.), The pear oyster (pp. 131-185). Amsterdam, Elsevier.

Shafee, M. S. (1989). Reproduction of Perna picta (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the Atlantic coast of Marocco. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 53, 235-245.

Soot-Ryen, T. (1955). A report on the family Mytilidae (Pelecypoda). Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions, 20(1), 1-175.

Takeda, A. M., Fujita, D. S., & Fontes-Junior, H. M. (2007). Bivalves invasores no rio Paraná. In S. B. Santos, A. D. Pimenta, S. C. Thiengo, M. A. Fernandez, & R. S. Absalão (Eds), Tópicos em Malacologia (pp. 81-86). Rio de Janeiro: Ecos do XVIII Encontro Brasileiro de Malacologia.

Vidal, B. C. (1987). Métodos em Biologia Celular. In B. C. Vidal, & M. L. Mello (Eds.), Biologia Celular (pp. 485-494). Rio de Janeiro: Atheneu.

Vidal, B. C. (1988). Histochemical and anisotropical properties characteristics of silver impregnation: the differentiation of reticulin fibers from the other interstitial collagens. Zoologisches Jahrbuch für Anatomie, 117, 485-494.



Download data is not yet available.