de Biología Tropical ISSN Impreso: 0034-7744 ISSN electrónico: 2215-2075

Detection de Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs and its ticks in rural communities of Yucatán, Mexico

Analilia Solís-Hernández, Roger Iván Rodríguez-Vivas, María Dolores Esteve-Gassent, Sandra Luz Villegas-Pérez



In Mexico, the distribution and the presence of pathogenic genospecies of B. burgdorferi in dogs and their ticks has not been extensively investigated. The study of canine borreliosis is acquiring greater relevance, since the dog is considered to be an important sentinel for pathogens pertaining to the complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato; in addition, dogs could be playing a key role in the spread of ticks from forested areas into the domestic environment. This study aimed to detect and estimate the prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in dogs and their ticks in two rural communities of Yucatán, Mexico. In each community, 50 houses were visited, where 144 blood samples from dogs were studied by puncture of the saphenous vein, as well as the collection of their ticks. To detect the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in these samples, the conserved gene flaB, p66 and ospC were PCR amplified. A total of 144 dog blood samples, and 846 of ticks were obtained from the examined animals. Considering tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (786 / 846) was common, while Ixodes affinis (33 / 846), and Amblyomma mixtum (27 / 846) resulted less frequent. As per gene conservation, the prevalence of B. burgdorferi in canine blood was 17.3 % (25 / 144) to flaB, 12.50 % (18 / 144) for p66 and 1.38 % (2 / 144) for the ospC gene. Within the analyzed ticks, R. sanguineus s.l. had a prevalence of 0.89 %, A. mixtum 5.88 % and I. affinis 15.15 %, being this last species the one that presented higher prevalence. Two dogs and their ticks I. affinis were positive to the flaB gene. Only a tick R. sanguineus s.l. was positive to the gene p66 and no tick species was positive the ospC gene. This study confirmed the existence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in dogs and their ticks in rural communities of Yucatán, Mexico. The detection of Borrelia in dogs may be an important criterion for the evaluation of the risk of borreliosis in humans, since the dog can be used as an epidemiological indicator for the identification of new outbreaks of this disease.


Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.; Lyme disease; dogs; Ixodes affinis; Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l.; Amblyomma spp.; Yucatán; Mexico.


Allan, S. (2001). Ticks (Class Arachnida: Order Acarina). In W. S. Samuel, M. J., Pybus, & A. A. Kocan (Eds.), Parasitic Diseases of Wild Animals. 2nd edition (pp. 72-106), Iowa: Iowa State University Press.

Appel, J. G. (1990). Lyme disease in dogs and cats. Compendium, 12, 617.

Arroyave, C. M., & Támez, G. R. (1994). Enfermedad de Lyme. Informe de dos casos. Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México, 51, 117-120.

Bhide, M., Travnicek. M., Curlik. J., & Stefancikova, A. (2004). The importance of dogs in eco-epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis: a review. Veterinary Medicine, 4, 135-142.

Bunikis, J., Garpmo, U., Tsao, J., Berglund, J., Fish, D., & Barbour, A. G. (2004a). Sequence typing reveals extensive strain diversity of the Lyme borreliosis agents Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii in Europe. Microbiology, 150, 1741-1755.

Bunikis, J., Tsao J., Luke C. J., Luna, M. G., Fish, D., & Barbour, A. G. (2004b). Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a natural population of Peromyscus leucopus mice: a longitudinal study in an area where Lyme Borreliosis is highly endemic. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 189, 1515-1523.

Burgdorfer, W., Hayes, S. F., & Corwin, D. (1989). Pathophysiology of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in ixodid ticks. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 6, S1442-S1450.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2015). Lyme Disease. Retrieved from

Dantas-Torres, F. (2008). The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae): from taxonomy to control. Veterinary Parasitology, 152, 173-185.

De Lacerda, A. A., Cuhna, M. R., Antunes, D. R., Do, N. C. F., & Machado, B. R. (2005). Frequency of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe: a metaanalysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 7203-7216.

Feria, T. P., Castro, I., Gordillo, G., Cavazos, A. L., Vargas, M., Grover, A., … Esteve-Gassent, M. D. (2014). Implications of climate change on the distribution of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis and risk for Lyme disease in the Texas-Mexico transboundary region. Parasites & Vectors, 7, 199.

Gammon, M., & Salam, G. (2002). Tick removal. American Family Physician, 66, 643-645.

Glenny, M., Mendoza, L., & Falconi, E. (2004). Detección de anticuerpos contra Borrelia burgdorferi e identificación de garrapatas ixodidas en Piura y Amazonas, Perú. Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública, 20, 23-27.

Goossens, H. A. T., van den Bogaard, A. E., & Nohlmans, M. K. E. (2001). Dogs as sentinel for human Lyme borreliosis in The Netherlands. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39, 844-848.

Gordillo-Pérez, G., Torres, J., Solórzano-Santos, F., De Martino, S., Lipsker, D., Velázquez, E., Ramon, G., Muñoz, O., & Jaulhac, B. (2007). Borrelia burgdorferi infection and cutaneous Lyme disease, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13, 1556-1558.

Greene, C. E., & Straubinger, R. K. (2006). Borreliosis. In C. E. Greene (Ed.), Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd edition (pp. 417-435). Philadelphia: WB Saunders Elsevier.

Guerrero, R. (1996). Las garrapatas de Venezuela (Acarina: Ixodidae). Listado de especies y claves para su Identificación. 1996. Boletín de Malariología y Salud Ambiental, 36, 1-24.

Guglielmone, A., Estrada-Peña A., Keirans, J., & Robbins, R. (2004). Las garrapatas (Acari: Ixodida) de la región zoogeográfica neotropical. Argentina: Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria.

Harrison, B. A., Rayburn, W.H. Jr, Toliver, M., Powell, E. E., Engber, B. R., Durden, L. A., … Whitt, P. B. (2010). Recent discovery of widespread Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) distribution in North Carolina with implications for Lyme disease studies. Journal of Vector Ecology, 35, 174-179.

Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI). (2014). Censo General de Población y Vivienda 2010. Recuperado de

Jaulhac, B., Heller, R., Limbach, F. X., Hansmann, Y., Lipsker, D., Monteil, H., … Piémont, Y. (2000). Direct molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species in synovial samples from patients with Lyme arthritis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 1895.

Keirans, J. E., & Litwak, T. R. (1989). Pictorial key to the adults of hard ticks, family Ixodidae (Ixodida: Ixodidea), east of the Mississippi river. Journal Medical of Entomology, 26, 435-448.

Krupka, I., & Straubinger, R. K. (2010). Lyme borreliosis in dogs and cats: background, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infections with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 40, 1103-1119.

Levy, S. A., & Magnarelli, L. A. (1992). Relationship between development of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs and the subsequent development of limb/joint borreliosis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 200, 344-347.

Little, S. E., Heise, S. R., Blagburn, B. L., Callister, S. M., & MeadLyme, P. S. (2010). Borreliosis in dogs and humans in the USA. Trends in Parasitology, 26, 213-218.

Mannelli, A., Bertolotti, L., Gern, L., & Gray, J. (2012). Ecology of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Europe: transmission dynamics in multi-host systems, influence of molecular processes and effects of climate change. Microbiological Reviews, 36, 837-61.

Mather, T. N., Fish, D., & Coughlin, R. T. (1994). Competence of dogs as reservoir for Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 205, 186-188.

Ogden, N. H., Maarouf, A., Barker, I. K., Bigras-Poulin, M., Lindsay, L. R., Morshed, M. G., O'callaghan, C. J., … Charron, D. F. (2006). Climate change and the potential for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada. International Journal for Parasitology, 36, 63-70.

Rauter, C., & Hartung, T. (2005). Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Europe: a Metaanalysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 71, 203-7216.

Rodríguez-Vivas, R. I., Apanaskevich, D. A., Ojeda-Chi M. M., Trinidad-Martínez, I., Reyes-Novelo, E., Esteve-Gassent, M.D., & Pérez de León A. A. (2016). Ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in Yucatan, Mexico. Veterinary Parasitology, 215, 103-107.

Rudenko, N., Golovchenko, M., Hönig, V., Mallátová, N., Krbková, L., Mikulášek, P., … Oliver, J.H. Jr. (2012). Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto OspC alleles associated with human Lyme Borreliosis worldwide in non-human-biting tick Ixodes affinis and rodent hosts in Southeastern United States. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 79, 1444-1453.

Salinas-Meléndez, J. A., Ávalos-Ramírez, R., Riojas-Valdez, V. M., & Martínez-Muñoz, A. (1999). Serological survey of canine borreliosis. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiología, 41, 1-3.

Salinas-Meléndez, J. A., Tamez-González, R., Welsh-Lozano, O., & Barrera-Saldaãna, H. A. (1995). Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in human skin biopsies and dog sinovial fluid by the polymerase chain reaction. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiologia, 37, 7-10.

Savić, S., Vidić, B., Lazić, S., Lako, B., Potkonjak, A., & Lepšanović, Z. (2010). Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and dogs in the province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Parasite, 17, 357-361.

Schulze, T. L., Bowen, G. S., Bosler, E. M., Lakat, M. F., Parkin, W. E., Altman, R., … Shisler, J. K. (1984). Amblyomma americanum: a potential vector of Lyme disease in New Jersey. Science, 224, 601-603.

Smith, R. P. Jr, Rand P. W., Lacombe E. H., Telford S. R, Rich S.M., Piesman J., & Spielman A. (1993). Norway rats as reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochetes on Monhe¬gan Island, Maine. Journal Infected Disease, 168, 687-691.

Solís-Hernández, A., Rodríguez-Vivas, R. I., Barrera-Pérez, M. A., Esteve- Gassent, M. D., & Apanaskevich, D. A. (2015). Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs from rural localities of Yucatán, México: Prevalence, abundance and associated factors. Veterinaria México, 2, 1-9.

Stanek, G., Wormser, G. P., Gray, J., & Strle, F. (2012). Lyme borreliosis. The Lancet, 379, 461-473.

Straubinger, R. K. (2000). PCR-based quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in canine tissues over a 500-day postinfection period. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 38, 2191-2199.

Tinoco-Gracia, L., Quiroz-Romero, H., Quintero, M. T., Renteria-Evangelista, T. B., Barreras-Serrano, A., Hori-Oshima, S., … Vinasco, J. (2007). Seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in dogs from a Mexico-U.S. border desert region: pilot study. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 6, 787-789.

Tinoco-Gracia, L., Quiroz-Romero, H., Quintero, M. T., Rentería-Evangelista, T. B., Barreras-Serrano, A., Hori-Oshima, S., … Moro, M. H. (2008). Prevalence and risk factors for Borrelia burgdorferi infection in Mexicali, Baja California, a Mexico-US border city. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, 6, 161-165.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© 2017 Universidad de Costa Rica. Para ver más detalles sobre la distribución de los artículos en este sitio visite el aviso legal. Este sitio es desarrollado por UCRIndex y Open Journal Systems. ¿Desea cosechar nuestros metadatos? dirección OAI-PMH: