Abstract: Trophic ecology and ecomorphological traits of Triportheus magdalenae (Characiformes: Triportheidae) in the El Guájaro reservoir, lower basin of the Magdalena River, Colombia.
This study integrated morphological characteristics and trophic ecology of Triportheus magdalenae in the El Guájaro reservoir, Atlántico, lower Magdalena River Basin, Colombia, based on the analysis of stomach contents and ecomorphological attributes. Five samplings were made between September 2014 and February 2016 considering each phase of the flood pulse. The fish were sampled using traditional fishing gear such as nets and trawls. The index of food importance (IAi %) was used to establish the dietary habits of the species, and the variation of the diet at interspecific level, and the vacuity coefficient (CV %) was also calculated. The Levins index standardized by Hurlbert (BA) was used to evaluate the amplitude between sizes, sex and hydrological phases. The oropharyngeal structures and the digestive tract were characterized, which together with morphological measurements, allowed and analyze 11 ecomorphological traits related to the use of habitat, such as position in the water column, and the exploitation of a particular trophic resource. The relationship between the ecomorphological traits and the diet of the species was analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). We analyzed 89 individuals (34 - 124 mm SL). Triportheus magdalenae was classified as carnivore/zooplanktivore, and has a narrow trophic niche (BA = 0.12). Showed a high exploitation of zooplankton (95.9 % IAi), mostly Cladocera (Ceriodaphnia sp.) and Copepoda (Notodiaptomus sp. and Thermocyclops sp). The youngest juveniles (34 - 190 mm SL) also consumed allochthonous insects (3.4 % IAi).The ecomorphological traits that contributed the most to this trophic specialization were the relative length of the gillrakers (LRBE) and the number of gillrakers (NBE), which varied significantly from the smaller to the larger ones, with an increase in both number as well as in length as individuals grow, which explains the strongly marked degree of specialization on zooplankton in adults, since they present a greater degree of efficiency in the process of filtering. The vacuity coefficient was high (54 %), which could be associated with a decrease in the density of zooplankton populations, especially during the time of lower waters strongly influenced by the EL NIÑO event, however the observed diet (22 items food) corresponded to 80 % of the diet estimated (28 estimated food items).