Revista de Biología Tropical ISSN Impreso: 0034-7744 ISSN electrónico: 2215-2075

Spatial patterns and interactions of dominant tree species in an Amazon tropical forest

Supplementary Files

Presentation Letter


timber species
spatial distribution
interspecific associations
Kernel density estimator
inhomogeneous K-function

How to Cite

Cysneiros, V. C., Dalmaso, C. A., Pelissari, A. L., de Mattos, P. P., Souza, L. de, & Machado, S. do A. (2018). Spatial patterns and interactions of dominant tree species in an Amazon tropical forest. Revista De Biología Tropical, 66(3), 1009–1017.


Knowledge of spatial patterns and interactions of tree species allows for understanding the ecological processes of spatiotemporal structures of tropical forests, becoming essential for the establishment of strategies for the conservation and management of their resources in long term. The aim of this study was to investigate spatial patterns and interactions of Astronium lecointei, Dinizia excelsa and Peltogyne paniculata, three dominant timber tree species in Jamari National Forest, Brazilian Amazon. Kernel estimator was used aiming to verify the possible influence of first-order factors on species distributions and Inhomogeneous K-function was applied to analyze spatial patterns and interactions of the species by means of second-order factors. Univariate analyses revealed different scale-dependent spatial patterns for the species. Aggregation related to ecological characteristics, such as preferential habitat and dispersal limitation, was verified for A. lecointei and P. paniculata. D. excelsa presented a random spatial pattern, explained by specific features of its establishment, such as the need for clearings due to light requirement. Interspecific associations were evidenced by bivariate analyses, in which the spatial attraction of the species resulted from the same preference for microhabitats and the repulsion was a result of niche segregation.


Asner, G. P., Kellner, J. R., Kennedy-Bowdoin, T., Knapp, D. A., Anderson, C. & Martin, R. E. (2013). Forest canopy gaps distributions in the Southern Peruvian Amazon. Plos One, 8, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060875

Baddeley, A. J., Moller, J. & Waagepetersen, R. (2000). Spatstat: an R packages for analyzing spatial point patterns. Statistica Neerlandica, 54 (3), 329-350.

Baddeley, A. & Turner, R. (2005). Spatstat: an R package for analyzing spatial point patterns. Journal of Statistical Software, 2 (6), 1-42.

Bailey, T. C. & Gatrell, A. C. (1995). Interactive spatial data analysis. Harlow: Longman Scientific and Technical.

Batista, J. L. F. & Maguire, D. A. (1998). Modeling the spatial structure of tropical forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 110, 293-314.

Callaway, R. M. (1995) Positive interactions among plants. Botanical Review, 61, 306-349.

Capretz, R. L., Batista, J. L. F., Sotomayor, J. F. M., Cunha, C. R.,

Nicoletti, M. F. & Rodrigues, R. R. (2012). Padrão espacial de quatro formações florestais do estado de São Paulo, através da função K de Ripley. Ciência Florestal, 22 (3), 551-565.

Chen, J. & Bradshaw, G. A. (1999). Forest structure in space: a case study of an old growth spruce-fir forest in Changbaishan Natural Reserve, PR, China. Forest Ecology and Management, 120, 219-233.

Condit, R., Ashton, P., Baker, P., Bunyavejchewin, S., Gunatilleke, S., Gunatilleke, N., Hubbell, S. P., Foster, R. B., Itoh, A., Lafrankie, J. V., Lee, H. S., Losos, E., Manokaran, N., Sukumar, R. & Yamakura, T. (2000). Spatial patterns in the distribution of tropical tree species. Science, 288, 1414-1418.

Connell, J. H.(1983). On the prevalence and relative importance of interspecific competition: evidence from field experiments. American Naturalist,122, 661-696.

Crawley, M. J. (1986). Plant Ecology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Cysneiros, V. C., Pelissari, A. L., Machado, S. A., Figueiredo Filho, A. & Souza, L. (2017). Modelos genéricos e específicos para estimativa do volume comercial em uma floresta sob concessão na Amazônia. Scientia Forestalis, 45 (114), 295-304.

Dale, M. R. T. (1999). Spatial Pattern Analysis in Plant Ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dick, C. W. (2001). Genetic rescue of remnant tropical trees by an alien pollinator. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 268, 2391-2396.

Dick, C. W., Etchelecu, G. & Austerlitz, F. (2003). Pollen dispersal of tropical trees (Dinizia excelsa: Fabaceae) by native insects and African honeybees in pristine and fragmented Amazonian rainforest. Molecular Ecology, 12, 753-764.

Ewel, J. J. & Hiremath, A. J. (2005). Plant–plant interactions in tropical forests. In: Burselem, D. F. R. P., Pinard, M. A., Hartley, S. E. Biotic interactions in the tropics: their role in the maintenance of et species diversity (pp. 3-34) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fangliang, H., Legendre, P. & Lafrankie, J. V. (1997). Distribution patterns of tree species in a Malaysian tropical rain forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 8 (1), 105-114.

Ferraz, I. D. K., Leal Filho, N., Imakawa, A. M., Varela, V. P. & Piña Rodrigues, F. C. M. (2004). Características básicas para um agrupamento ecológico preliminar de espécies madeireiras da floresta de terra firme da Amazônia Central. Acta Amazonica, 34 (4), 621-633.

Ferreira, G. C. & Hopkins, M. J. G. (2004). Manual de identificação botânica e anatômica – angelim. Belém: Embrapa Amazônia Oriental.

Figueiredo, S. M. M., Venticinque, E. M., Figueiredo, E. O. & Ferreira, E. J. L. (2015). Predição da distribuição de espécies florestais usando variáveis topográficas e de índice de vegetação no leste do Acre, Brasil. Acta Amazonica, 45 (2), 167-174.

Guillaumet, J. L. (1987). Some structural and floristic aspect of the forest. Experientia, 43 (3), 241-251.

Harms, E. K., Condit, R., Hubbell, S. P. & Forster, R. B. (2001). Habitat associations of trees and shrubs in a 50-ha neotropical forest plot. Journal of Ecology, 89 (6), 947-959.

Higuchi, P., Silva, A. C., van den Berg, E. & Daniel, S. P. (2011). Associações espaciais entre indivíduos de diferentes espécies de Miconia spp. Ruiz & Pav. (Melastomataceae). Revista Árvore, 35 (3), 381-389.

Hubbell, S. P. (1979) Tree dispersion, abundance, and diversity in a tropical dry forest. Science, 203, 1299-1309.

Hubbell, S. P. (2001). The unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

IBAMA – Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis. (1997). Madeiras da Amazônia: características e utilização (v. 3). Brasília: IBAMA.

Janzen, D. H. (1970). Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. American Naturalist, 104, 501-528.

Lan, G., Getzin, S., Wiegand, T., Hu, Y., Xie, G., Zhu, H. & Cao, M. (2012) Spatial distribution and interspecific associations of tree species in a tropical seasonal rain forest of China. Plos One, 7 (9), 46074-46080.

Laurance, W. F., Nascimento, H., Laurance, S. G., Condit, R., D’angelo, S. & Andrade, A. (2004). Inferred longevity of Amazonian rainforest trees based on a long-term demographic study. Forest Ecology and Management, 190, 131-143.

Legendre, P. & Fortín, M. J. (1989). Spatial pattern and ecological analysis. Vegetatio, 80 (2), 107-138.

Luo, Z. R., Yu, M. J., Chen, D. L., Wu, Y. G. & Ding, B. Y. (2012). Spatial associations of tree species in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest. Journal of Plant Ecology, 5, 1-10.

Matteucci, S. D. & Colma, A. (1982). Metodologia para el estúdio de la vegetación. Washington: The General Secretarial of The Organization of American States.

Mesquita, M. R., Ferraz, I. D. K. & Camargo, J. L. C. (2007). Dinizia excelsa Ducke: Morfologia externa de frutos e sementes e mudança foliar da plântula à árvore. Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 5 (1), 483-485.

Moller, J. & Waagepetersen, R. (2003). Statistical inference and simulation for spatial point process. Boca Raton: Chapman and Hall.

Myster, R. W. & Malahy, M. P. (2012). Testing aggregation hypotheses among neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 60 (3), 1015-1023.

Odum, E. P. (2010). Ecologia. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara, Koogan.

Oliveira, A. A. & Mori, S. A. (1999). A central Amazonian terra firme forest. High tree species richness on poor soils. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, 1219-1244.

Péllico Netto, S., Pelissari, A. L., Cysneiros, V. C., Bonazza, M. & Sanquetta, C. R. (2017). Sampling procedures for inventory of commercial volume tree species in Amazon forest. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 89 (3), 1829-1840.

Pielou, E. C. (1961). Segregation and symmetry in two-species populations as studied by nearest- neighbour relationships. Journal of Ecology, 49 (2), 255-269.

Plotkin, J. B., Potts, M. D., Leslie, N., Manokaran, N., Lafrankie, J. & Ashton, P. S. (2000). Species-area curves, spatial aggregation, and habitat specialization in tropical forests. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 207, 81-99.

Pottker, G. S., Oliveira Filho, P. C., Figueiredo Filho, A. & Dalmaso, C. A. (2016). Padrão espacial de espécies florestais: estudo de caso com Ocotea odorifera (Vell.) Rohwer. Ciência Florestal, 26 (4),1097-1106.

R Core Team. (2013). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

Réjou-Mecháin, M., Flores, O., Bourlandd, N., Doucet, J. L., Fétéké, R. F., Pasquier, A. & Hardy, O. J. (2011). Spatial aggregation of tropical trees at multiple spatial scales. Journal of Ecology, 99, 1373-1381.

Ribeiro, J. E. L. S., Hopkins, M. J. G., Vicentini, A., Sothers, C. A., Costa, M. A. S., Brito, J. M., Souza, M. A. D., Martins, L. H. P., Lohmann, L. G., Assunção, P. A. C. L., Pereira, E. C., Silva, C. F., Mesquita, M. R. & Procópio, L. C. (1999). Flora da Reserva Ducke: guia de identificação das plantas vasculares de uma floresta de terra-firme na Amazônia Central. Manaus: INPA.

Ricklefs, R. E. & Miller, G. L. (2000). Ecology. New York: Freeman & Co.

Ripley, B. D. (1977). Modeling spatial patterns (with discussion). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 39 (2),172-212.

Rivera-Martín, L. E., Peñuela-Mora, M. C., Rojas, E. M. J. & Jaramillo, M. P. V. (2013). Ecología y silvicultura de especies útiles amazónicas. Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones – IMANI.

Rockwell, C. A., Guariguata, M. R., Menton, M., Quispe, E. A., Quaedvlieg, J., Warrem-Thomas, E., Silva, H. F., Rojas, E. E. J., Arrunatéqui, J. A. H. K., Veja, L. A. M., Hancco, R. Q., Vera, O. R., Tito, J. F. V., Panduro, B. T. V. & Sala, J. J. Y. (2017). Spatial distribution of Bertholletia excelsa in selectively logged forests of the Peruvian Amazon. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 1, 1-14.

Seidler, T. G. & Plotkin, J. B. (2006). Seed dispersal and spatial pattern in tropical tree. PLOS Biology, 4 (11), 2132-2137.

Silva, K. E., Martins, S. V., Santos, N. T. & Ribeiro, C. A. A. S. (2009). Padrões espaciais de espécies arbóreas tropicais. In: MARTINS, S. E. Ecologia de Florestas Tropicais do Brasil (pp. 216-244). Viçosa: Editora UFV.

Silva, K. E., Martins, S. V., Fortín, M. J., Ribeiro, M. C., Azevedo, C. P., Ribeiro, C. A. A. S. & SANTOS, N. T. (2014). Tree species community spatial structure in a terra firme Amazon forest, Brazil. Bosque, 35 (3), 347-355.

Thomson, F. J., Moles, A. T., Auld, T. D. & Kingsford, R. T. (2011). Seed dispersal distance is more strongly correlated with plant height than with seed mass. Journal of Ecology, 99, 1299-1307.

Volkov, I., Banavar, J. R., Hubbell, S. P. & Maritan, A. (2009). Inferring species interactions in tropical forests. PNAS, 106, 13854-1385.

Wright, S. J. (2002). Plant diversity in tropical forests: a review of mechanisms of species coexistence. Oecologia, 130, 1-14.



Download data is not yet available.