The genus Pseudoboletia was recently reported off coast of Brazil (Trindade-Martin Vaz insular complex). This study reports the first record of this genus to southern of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina coasts. Morphological and molecular data showed that sea urchins from Brazil and São Tomé are the same species, genetically distinct of individuals from Indo-Pacific. However, taxonomic identity of Brazilian species remains as a challenge. Two hypotheses to explain the recent records of this species on Brazilian coast are discussed: a recent natural invasion by long-distance dispersal and a recent population expansion in the Brazilian coast after absence or low density period. Rev. Biol. Trop. 65(Suppl. 1): S299-S308. Epub 2017 November 01.

Keywords: sea urchin, Brazilian coast, new record, population expansion, long distance dispersal.