A reproductive analysis of 1 225 specimens of Poeciliopsis gracilis obtained through monthly samples from Coatetelco, a tropical shallow lake in Central Mexico, was made. There was an evident sexual dimorphism, including a difference in body size at the onset of reproduction. Sex ratio deviated significantly from unity. Monthly variations in gonadosomatic (GSI), hepatosomatic (HSI) indexes and ovarian development stages showed that the spawning season was from July to October, coinciding with the rainy season and phytoplankton biomass increase.