Revista de Biología Tropical ISSN Impreso: 0034-7744 ISSN electrónico: 2215-2075

Phylogenetic relationships of the Mangrove Hummingbird, “Amazilia” boucardi (Apodiformes: Trochilidae) of Costa Rica

How to Cite

Albertazzi, F. J., Alvarado, G., & Stiles, F. G. (2024). Phylogenetic relationships of the Mangrove Hummingbird, “Amazilia” boucardi (Apodiformes: Trochilidae) of Costa Rica. Revista De Biología Tropical, 72(1), e49359.


Introduction: A recent revision of the generic classification of the Trochilidae based on DNA sequences revealed many inconsistencies with the current generic classification, largely based on plumage characters subject to homoplasy, especially in the Trochilini, the largest tribe. A thorough generic reorganization brought the classification into accord with the phylogeny, but due to lack of genetic data, two species remained unclassified. One of these was the Mangrove Hummingbird, “Amaziliaboucardi, endemic to Costa Rica and included in the IUCN red list of threatened species. Objective: To obtain molecular evidence to clarify the generic relationships of “A.” boucardi. Methods: We isolated DNA from tissues of this species and amplified 4 nuclear and 4 mitochondrial fragments and compared these with homologous fragments from 56 species in the Trochilini, constructing phylogenetic trees with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Results: Our phylogenetic analyses confirmed the placement of boucardi in the Trochilini and definitely excluded it from Amazilia but placed it with high confidence in the genus Chrysuronia Bonaparte, 1850, within which its closest relative is C. coeruleogularis, which also inhabits mangroves. Conclusions: Our genetic data based on nuclear and mitochondrial regions clearly indicate the relationship of A. boucardi and L. coeruleogularis. Moreover, it is also support by their habitat distribution in the mangroves of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Western Panama. Therefore, we suggested to exclude A. boucardi as "incertae sedis".


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