Revista de Biología Tropical ISSN Impreso: 0034-7744 ISSN electrónico: 2215-2075

Community structure of raptors in the páramo landscape of the Ecuadorian Andes


Macizo del Cajas biosphere reserve
protected areas
field methods
raptor census
community analysis
reserva de la biosfera Macizo del Cajas
áreas protegidas
métodos de campo
monitoreo de rapaces
análisis de la comunidad

How to Cite

Barros, S., Porras, P., Landázuri, B., Siddons, D. C., Latta, S. C., & Astudillo, P. X. (2023). Community structure of raptors in the páramo landscape of the Ecuadorian Andes. Revista De Biología Tropical, 71(1), e51382.


Introduction: Habitat alterations result in biodiversity loss, particularly in regions with high levels of diversity and endemism. Raptors are an essential part of the functionality and stability of ecosystems and indicators of habitat quality. In the paramo grassland ecosystems in the high Andes of Northern South America, raptors contain a high concentration of threatened species. Objective: To describe the raptor community structure and determine the species associations. Methods: We made monthly raptor counts in eight transects from October 2021 to September 2022 and used a principal component analysis to determine species associations. Results: We identified 149 individuals (seven species, three families) in two communities: abundant (Carunculated Caracara, Variable Hawk, Andean Condor and Turkey Vulture; PCI = 47 %), and scarce (Cinereous Harrier, Peregrine Falcon and Aplomado Falco; PCII = 27 %). Conclusion: We provide a valid description and understanding of raptor community structure, identifying two communities and the dynamics between them. The first is characterized by an increased abundance of generalist and regionally common species, when the abundance of these species decreases, the second community is defined, characterized by an increase in the abundance of specialist and rare species at the local scale.


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