Objective. The objective is to identify the contributions of psychoanalysis in the formulation of mental health care practices in Brazil. Method. The method of integrative literature review with meta-synthesis was used in the PubMed, BVS, LILACS, SciELO databases, with searches from 2008 to 2018. Results. The results indicate that psychoanalysis contributed to the notion of structural diagnosis, a new perspective of healing, work with delirium and art, “practice made by many” construction of the clinical case, expanded clinic, and unique listening. In conclusion, psychoanalysis is part of the restructuring and creation of care practices in mental health institutions within the scope of theoretical and technical devices, so the patient specificities guide the treatment.

Keywords: Mental Health, Psychiatric Reform, Insitutions, Psychoanalysis, Care Practices