Actualidades en Psicología ISSN Impreso: 0258-6444 ISSN electrónico: 2215-3535

Cultural variations in socialization of emotions by parents: An integrative literature review
PDF (Português (Brasil))
HTML (Português (Brasil))


emotion socialization
parental beliefs
parental practices
socialización de emociones
creencias parentales
prácticas parentales
socialização de emoções
crenças parentais
práticas parentais
culturas não-ocidentais

How to Cite

Jiménez-Balam, D., Cavalcante, L., & Castillo-León, T. (2023). Cultural variations in socialization of emotions by parents: An integrative literature review. Actualidades En Psicología, 37(134), 134–150.


Objective. This study aimed to identify the theoretical and methodological characteristics, as well as the results of empirical studies that addressed the parental socialization of emotions in different non-western cultural groups. Method. This required an integrative literature review with a qualitative focus. Results. The results showed that the main theoretical approaches were the ecological approaches and the heuristic model of the socialization of emotions. Regarding employed methodologies, quantitative studies with a greater presence of mothers prevailed. The main results point out that there are variations in the socializing emotions in several aspects such as the functioning of children, emotional expression, reaction to children’s emotions, parental ethnotheories, emotional talk and others. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for future research.
PDF (Português (Brasil))
HTML (Português (Brasil))


Amir, D., & McAuliffe, K. (2020). Cross-cultural, developmental psychology: Integrating approaches and key insights. Evolution and Human Behavior, 41(5), 430-444.

Bader, L. R., & Fouts, H. N. (2019). Parents’ perceptions about infant emotions: A narrative cross-disciplinary systematic literature review. Developmental Review, 51, 1-30.

Bader, L. R., Fouts, H. N., & Jaekel, J. (2019). Mothers’ feelings about infants’ negative emotions and mother-infant interactions among the Gamo of Southern Ethiopia. Infant Behavior and Development, 54, 22-36.

Bowie, B. H., Carrère, S., Cooke, C., Valdivia, G., McAllister, B., & Doohan, E.A. (2011). The role of culture in parents’ socialization of children’s emotional development. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 35(4), 514-533.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1987). La ecología del desarrollo humano. Paidós.

Camras, L. A., Shuster, M. M., & Fraumeni, B. R. (2014). Emotion socialization in the family with an emphasis on culture. In K. H. Lagattuta (Ed.). Children and Emotion. New insights into developmental affective science. Contributions to Human Development (Vol. 26, pp. 67-80). Karger.

Chen, S. H., & Zhou, Q. (2019). Longitudinal relations of cultural orientation and emotional expressivity in chinese american immigrant parents: Sociocultural infliences on emotional development in adulthood. Developmental Psychology, 55(5), 1111-1123.

Chen, S. H., Zhou, Q., Eisenberg, N., Valiente, C., & Wang, Y. (2011). Parental expressitivy and parenting styles in Chinese families: Prospective and unique relations to children’s psychological adjustment. Parenting, 11(4), 288-307.

Corapci, F., Aksan, N., & Yagmurlu, B. (2012). Socialization of turkish children’s emotions: do different emotions elicit different responses? Global Studies of Childhood, 2(2), 106-116.

Corapci, F., Friedlmeier, W., Benga, O., Strauss, C., Pitica, I., & Susa, G. (2017). Cultural socialization of toddlers in emotionally charged situations. Social Development, 27(2), 262-278.

Curtis, K., Zhou, Q., & Tao, A. (2020). Emotion talk in Chinese American immigrant families and longitudinal links to children’s socioemotional competence. Developmental Psychology, 56(3), 475-488.

Di Giunta, L., Rothenberg, W. A., Lunetti, C., Lansford, J. E., Pastorelli, C., Eisenberg, N., Thartori, E., Basili, E., Favini, A., Yotanyamaneewong, S., Peña, L., Al-Hassan, S. M., Bacchini, D., Bornstein, M. H., Chang, L., Deater-Deckard, K., Dodge, K. A., Oburu, P., Skinner, A. T., . . . Uribe, L. M. (2020). Longitudinal associations between mothers’ and fathers’ anger/irritability expressiveness, harsh parenting, and adolescents’ socioemotional functioning in nine countries. Developmental Psychology, 56(3), 458-474.

Doan, S. N., & Wang, Q. (2010). Maternal discussions of mental states and behaviors: Relations to emotion situation knowledge in european American and Immigrant Chinese children. Child Development, 81(5), 1490-1503.

Eisenberg, N., Cumberland, A., & Spinrad, T. L. (1998). Parent socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 9(4), 241-273.

Fishman, J. L., Raval, V. V., Daga, S., & Raj, S. P. (2014). Meta-emotion philosophy among Asian Indian immigrant mothers in the United States. Qualitative Health Research, 24(7), 875-889.

García Coll, C. G., Lamberty, G., Jenkins, R., McAdoo, H. P., Crnic, K., Wasik, B. H., & García, H. V. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67(5), 1891-1914.

Gottman, J. M., Katz, L. F., & Hooven, C. (1996). Parental meta-emotion philosophy and the emotional life of families: Theoretical models and preliminary data. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(3), 243-268.

Greenfield, P., Keller, H., Fuligni, A., & Maynard, A. (2003). Cultural pathways through universal development. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 461-490.

Gurven, M. D. (2018). Broadening horizons: Sample diversity and socioecological theory are essential to the future of psychological science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(45), 11420-11427.

Halberstadt, A., & Lozada, F. (2011). Emotion development in infancy through the lens of culture. Emotion Review, 3(2), 158-168.

Her, P., Dunsmore, J., & Stelter, R. (2012). Parents’ beliefs about emotions and children’s self-construals in African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian families. Global Studies of Childhood, 2(2), 129-43.

Hruschka, D. J., Medin, D. L., Rogoff, B., & Henrich, J. (2018). Pressing questions in the study of psychological and behavioral diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(45), 11366-11368.

Kagitcibasi, C. (2017). Family, self, and human development across cultures: Theory and applications. Routledge.

Karkhanis, D. G., & Winsler, A. (2016). Temperament, gender, and cultural differences in maternal emotion socialization of anxiety, somatization, and anger. Psychological Studies, 61(3), 137-158.

Kärtner, J., Holodynski, M., & Wörmann, V. (2012). Parental ethnotheories, social practice and the culture-specific development of social smiling in infants. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 20(1), 79-95.

Kashima, Y., & Gelfand, M. J. (2012). A history of culture in psychology. In A. Kriglanski & W. Stroebe (Eds.), Handbook of the history of social psychology (pp. 499-520). Psychology Press.

Keller, H., & Kärtner, J. (2013). The cultural solution of universal developmental tasks. In M. J. Gelfand, C. Chiu, & Y. Hong (Eds.), Advances in culture and psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 63-116). Oxford University Press.

Keller, H., & Otto, H. (2009). The cultural socialization of emotion regulation during infancy. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(6), 996-1011.

Kitzmann, K. M. (2012). Learning about emotion: Cultural and family contexts of emotion socialization. Global Studies of Childhood, 2(2), 82-84.

Kwong, E., Lam, C. B., Li, X., Chung, K. K. H., Cheung, R. Y. M., & Leung, C. (2018). Fit in but stand out: A qualitative study of parents’ and teachers’ perspectives on socioemotional competence of children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 44, 275-287.

Louie, J. Y., Oh, B. J., & Lau, A. S. (2013). Cultural differences in the links between parental control and children’s emotional expressivity. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 19(4), 424-434.

Lozada, F. T., & Halberstadt, A. G. (2015). Early emotional development and cultural variability. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed., pp. 746-751).

Lugo-Candelas, C. I., Harvey, E. A., & Breaux, R. P. (2015). Emotion socialization practices in Latina and European-American mothers of preschoolers with behavior problems. Journal of Family Studies, 21(2), 144-162.

Markus, H., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253.

McCord, B., & Raval, V. V. (2015). Asian Indian immigrant and white American maternal emotion socialization and child socio-emotional functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(2), 464-474.

McKee, L., Faro, A., O’Leary, J., Spratt, K., & Jones, D. (2015). Socializing positive emotion: A qualitative study of African American single mothers and their adolescent youth. Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 64(5), 635-650.

Mendes, K. D. S., Silveira, R. C. D. C. P., & Galvão, C. M. (2008). Revisão integrativa: método de pesquisa para a incorporação de evidências na saúde e na enfermagem. Texto & Contexto Enfermagem, 17(4), 758-764.

Quinn, N. (2005). Universals of child rearing. Anthropological Theory, 5(4), 477-516.

Rad, M. S., Martingano, A. J., & Ginges, J. (2018). Toward a psychology of Homo sapiens: Making psychological science more representative of the human population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(45), 11401-11405.

Raval, V. V., Daga, S., Raval, P. H., & Panchal, I. N. (2016). Asian Indian mothers’ emotion socialization and child emotion expression as a function of situational context. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(9), 2853-2861.

Raval, V. V., Li, X., Deo, N., & Hu, J. (2018). Reports of maternal socialization goals, emotion socialization behaviors, and child functioning in China and India. Journal of Family Psychology, 32(1), 81-91.

Raval, V. V., Luebbe, A., & Sathiyaseelan, A. (2018). Parental socialization of positive affect, adolescent positive affect regulation, and adolescent girls’ depression in India. Social Development, 28(2), 274-289

Raval, V. V., & Martini, T. S. (2011). Making the Child Understand:” Socialization of Emotion in Urban India. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(6), 847-856.

Raval, V. V., Raval, P. H., & Deo, N. (2014). Mothers’ socialization goals, mothers’ emotion socialization behaviors, child emotion regulation, and child socioemotional functioning in Urban India. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 34(2), 229-250.

Raval, V. V., Raval, P. H., Salvina, J. M., Wilson, S. L., & Writer, S. (2013). Mothers’ socialization of children’s emotion in India and the USA: A cross- and within-culture comparison. Social Development, 22(3), 467-484.

Raval, V. V., & Walker, B. (2019). Unpacking “culture”: Caregiver socialization of emotion and child functioning in diverse families. Developmental Review, 51, 146-174.

Remorini, C. (2012). Childrearing and the shaping of children’s emotional experiences and expressions in two Argentinian communities. Global Studies of Childhood, 2(2), 144-157.

Rodas, N. V., Chavira, D. A., & Baker, B. L. (2017). Emotion socialization and internalizing behavior problems in diverse youth: A bidirectional relationship across childhood. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 62, 15-25.

Rodríguez, G., Gil, J., & García, E. (1996). Metodología de la investigación cualitativa. Aljibe.

Röttger-Rössler, B., Scheidecker, G., Funk, L., & Holodynski, M. (2015). Learning (by) feeling: A cross-cultural comparison of the socialization and development of emotions. Ethos, 43(2), 187-220.

Röttger-Rössler, B., Scheidecker, G., Jung, S., & Holodynski, M. (2013). Socializing emotions in childhood: A cross-cultural comparison between the Bara in Madagascar and the Minangkabau in Indonesia. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 20(3), 260-287.

Sosa-Hernandez, L., Sack, L., Seddon, J. A., Bailey, K., & Thomassin, K. (2020). Mother and father repertoires of emotion socialization practices in middle childhood. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 69, 101159.

Super, C., & Harkness, S. (1986). The developmental niche: A conceptualization at the interface of child and cuslture. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 9(4), 545-569.

Tao, A., Zhou, Q., Lau, N., & Liu, H. (2012). Chinese American immigrant mothers’ discussion of emotion with children: Relations to cultural orientations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(3), 478-501.

Trommsdorff, G., Cole, P. M., & Heikamp, T. (2012). Cultural variations in mothers’ intuitive theories: A preliminary report on interviewing mothers from five nations about their socialization of children’s emotions. Global Studies of Childhood, 2(2), 158-169.

Trommsdorff, G., & Friedlmeier, W. (2010). Preschool girls’ distress and mothers’ sensitivity in Japan and Germany. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7(3), 350-370.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1997). The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky: Vol. 4. The history of the development of higher mental functions. Plenum Press.

Wang, Q. (2013). Chinese socialization and emotion talk between mothers and children in native and immigrant Chinese families. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 4(3), 185-192.

Yang, Y., Song, Q., Doan, S. N., & Wang, Q. (2020). Maternal reactions to children’s negative emotions: Relations to children’s socio-emotional development among European American and Chinese immigrant children. Transcultural Psychiatry, 57(3), 408-420.


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2023 Deira Jiménez-Balam, Lilia Cavalcante, Dra., Teresita Castillo-León, Dra.


Download data is not yet available.