Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.
Keywords:total serum protein, colostrum, immunoglobulins, dairy cattle.
The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP) measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05) between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%).
Beam, A.L., J.E. Lombard, C.A. Kopral, L.P. Garber, A.L. Winter, J.A. Hicks, and J.L.Schlater. 2009. Prevalence of failure of passive transfer of immunity in newborn heifer calves and associated management practices on US dairy operations. J. Dairy Sci. 92:3973-3980.
Besser, T.E., C.C. Gay, and L. Pritchett. 1991. Comparison of three methods of feeding colostrums to dairy calves. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 198:419-422.
Brignole, T.J., and G.H. Stott. 1980. Effect of suckling followed by bottle feeding colostrum on immunoglobulin absorption and calf survival. J. Dairy Sci. 63:451-456.
Davis, C.L., and J.K. Drackley. 1998. The development, nutrition, and management of the young calf. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
DeNise, S.K., J.D. Robison, G.H. Stott, and D.V. Armstrong. 1989. Effects of passive immunity on subsequent production in dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 72:552-554.
Devery, J.E., and B.L. Larson. 1983. Age and previous lactations as factors in the amount of bovine colostral immunoglobulins. J. Dairy Sci. 66:221-226.
Donovan, G.A., I.R. Dahoo, D.M. Montgomery, and F.L. Bennett. 1998. Associations between passive transfer immunity and morbidity and mortality in dairy heifers in Florida, USA. Prevent. Vet. Med. 34:31-46.
Elizondo-Salazar, J.A. 2007. Alimentación y manejo del calostro en el ganado de leche. Agron. Mesoam. 18:271-281.
Elizondo-Salazar, J.A., and A. Heinrichs. 2009. Feeding heat-treated colostrum or unheated colostrum with two different bacterial concentrations to neonatal dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 92:4565-4571.
Elizondo-Salazar, J.A., y J. Rodríguez-Zamora. 2013. Transferencia de inmunidad pasiva en terneras de lechería que reciben calostro por dos métodos diferentes. Nutr. Anim. Trop. 7:1-13.
Faber, S.N., N.E. Faber, T.C. McCauley, and R.L. AX. 2005. Effects of colostrum ingestion on lactational performance. Prof. Anim. Sci. 21:420-425.
Gulliksen, S.M., K.I. Lie, L. Solverod, and O. Osteras. 2008. Risk factors associated with colostrums quality in Norwegian dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 91:704-712.
Johnson, J.L., S.M. Godden, T. Molitor, T. Ames, and D. Hagman. 2007. Effects of feeding heat-treated colostrum on passive transfer of immune and nutritional parameters in neonatal dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 90:5189-5198.
Kehoe, S.I., A.J. Heinrichs, M.L. Moody, C.M. Jones, and M.R. Long. 2011. Comparison of immunoglobulin G concentrations in primiparous and multiparous bovine colostrum. Prof. Anim. Sci. 27:176-180.
Moore, M., J.W. Tyler, M. Chigerwe, M.E. Dawes, and J.R. Middleton. 2005. Effect of delayed colostrums collection on colostral IgG concentration in dairy cows. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 226:1375-1377.
Morein, B., G. Blomquist, and K. Hu. 2007. Immune responsiveness in the neonatal period. J. Comp. Pathol. 137:S27-S31.
Muller, L.D., and D.K. Ellinger. 1981. Colostral immunoglobulin concentrations among breeds of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 64:1727-1730.
NAHMS (National Animal health Monitoring System). 2007. Dairy 2007. Part 1. Reference of dairy health and management in the United States. USDA:APHIS Veterinary Services, Ft. Collins, CO, USA.
Nocek, J.E., D.G. Braund, and R.G. Warner. 1984. Influence of neonatal colostrums administration, immunoglobulin, and continued feeding of colostrums on calf gain health, serum protein. J. Dairy Sci. 67:319-333.
Quigley, J.D., K.R. Martin, D.A Bemis, L.N. Potgieter, C.R. Reinemeyer, B.W. Rohrbach, H.H. Dowlen, and K.C. Lamar. 1995. Effects of housing and colostrums feeding on serum immunoglobulins, growth, and fecal scores of Jersey calves. J. Dairy Sci. 78:893-901.
Robison, J.D., G.H. Stott, and S.K. DeNise. 1988. Effects of passive immunity on growth and survival in the dairy heifer. J. Dairy Sci. 71:1283-1287.
Sasaki, M., C.L. Davis, and B.L. Larson. 1983. Immunoglobulin IgG1 metabolism in new born calves. J. Dairy Sci. 60:623-626.
SAS Institute. 2004. SAS/STAT 9.1 User`s guide. Version 9.1 ed. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N.C., USA.
Stott, G.H., D.B. Marx, B.E. Menefee, and G.T. Nightengale. 1979a. Colostral immunoglobulin transfer in calves. I. Period of absorption. J. Dairy Sci. 62:1632-1638.
Stott, G.H., D.B. Marx, B.E. Menefee, and G.T. Nightengale. 1979b. Colostral immunoglobulin transfer in calves. II. The rate of absorption. J. Dairy Sci. 62:1766-1773.
Trotz-Williams, L.A., K.E. Leslie, and A.S. Peregrine. 2008. Passive immunity in Ontario dairy calves and investigation of its association with calf management practices. J. Dairy Sci. 91:3840-3849.
Vargas-Villalobos, O., J.A. Elizondo-Salazar, y L. Noguera-Solera. 2014. Factores relacionados con la falla en la transferencia de inmunidad pasiva en terneras y terneros de lechería en la región Central Norte de Costa Rica. Nutr. Anim. Trop. 8:68-79.
Virtala, A.M., Y.T. Grohn, G.D. Mechor, and H.N. Erb. 1999. The effect of maternally derived immunoglobulin G on the risk of respiratory diseases in heifers during the first 3 months of life. Prevent. Vet. Med. 39:25-37.
Wallace, M.M., B.D. Jarvie, N.R. Perkins, and K.E. Leslie. 2006. A comparison of serum harvesting methods and type of refractometer for determining total solids to estimate failure of passive transfer in calves. Can. Vet. J. 47:573-575.
Wells, S.J., D.A. Dargatz, and S.L. Ott. 1996. Factors associated with mortality to 21 days of life in dairy heifers in the United States. Prevent. Vet. Med. 29: 9-19.
How to Cite
1. Proposed policy for open access journals
Authors who publish in this journal accept the following conditions:
a. Authors retain the copyright and assign to the journal the right to the first publication, with the work registered under the attribution, non-commercial and no-derivative license from Creative Commons, which allows third parties to use what has been published as long as they mention the authorship of the work and upon first publication in this journal, the work may not be used for commercial purposes and the publications may not be used to remix, transform or create another work.
b. Authors may enter into additional independent contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the version of the article published in this journal (e.g., including it in an institutional repository or publishing it in a book) provided that they clearly indicate that the work was first published in this journal.
c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to publish their work on the Internet (e.g. on institutional or personal pages) before and during the review and publication process, as it may lead to productive exchanges and faster and wider dissemination of published work (see The Effect of Open Access).