ía Mesoamericana ISSN electrónico: 2215-3608

Uterine inflammation affects the reproductive performance of dairy cows: A review

Roger Eduardo Molina-Coto, Matthew C. Lucy



Incidence of post- partum uterine disease is an important concern in dairy cattle, because it affects its reproduction. Therefore, the objective of this review of literature was to generate a multifactorial overview about uterine diseases, and the reproductive performance of dairy cows, from a zootechnical approach. Dairy cows face multiple challenges around parturition. Immune suppression around calving, exposition to trauma and uterine bacterial contamination, metabolic diseases, lactation, and changes in management make dairy cows susceptible to uterine diseases. Most cows are able to eliminate uterine infection after calving, however, some cows keep uterine disease. Uterine disease may show clinical signs, but also silent signs that affect fertility as well. Poor reproductive performance is not caused by those signs by themselves, but due to alterations in ovarian and uterine function. Also, the problem of this silent signs is that farmers become aware of the disease when it has already caused negative effects on the reproductiveperformance. Sometimes, uterine disease is still present at the moment of the first service after calving. Uterine diseasemake it harder for cows to get pregnant because it affects the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy, being another cause for infertility, increasing the cull rate and decreasing incomes from the dairy industry.


endometritis; uterine diseases; fertility; risk factors; reproductive performance.

Full Text:



Akbar, H., F.C. Cardoso, S. Meier, C. Burke, S. McDougall, M. Mitchell, C. Walker, S.L. Rodriguez-Zas, R.E. Everts, H.A. Lewin, J.R. Roche, and J.J. Loor. 2014. Postpartal subclinical endometritis alters transcriptome profiles in liver and adipose tissue of dairy cows. Bioinform. Biol. Insights 8:45-63. doi:10.4137/BBI.S13735

Amos, M.R., G.D. Healey, R.J. Goldstone, S.M. Mahan, A. Duvel, H.J. Schuberth, O. Sandra, P. Zieger, I. Dieuzy-Labaye, D.G. Smith, and I.M. Sheldon. 2014. Differential endometrial cell sensitivity to a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin links Trueperella pyogenes to uterine disease in cattle. Biol. Reprod. 90:54. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.113.115972

Arlt, S., W. Padberg, M. Drillich, and W. Heuwieser. 2009. Efficacy of homeopathic remedies as prophylaxis of bovine endometritis. J. Dairy Sci. 92:4945-4953. doi:10.3168/jds.2009-2142.

Armengol, R., and L. Fraile. 2015. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows. Theriogenology 83:1344-1351. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.01.024

Bicalho, R.C., C. Foditsch, R. Gilbert, and G. Oikonomou. 2014a. The effect of sire predicted transmitting ability for production traits on fertility, survivability, and health of Holstein dairy cows. Theriogenology 81:257-265. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2013.09.023

Bicalho, M.L., F.S. Lima, E.K. Ganda, C. Foditsch, E.B. Meira Jr., V.S. Machado, A.G. Teixeira, G. Oikonomou, R.O. Gilbert, and R.C. Bicalho. 2014b. Effect of trace mineral supplementation on selected minerals, energy metabolites, oxidative stress, and immune parameters and its association with uterine diseases in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 97:4281-4295. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-7832

Bicalho, M.L., F.S. Lima, V.S. Machado, E.B. Meira Jr., E.K. Ganda, C. Foditsch, R.C. Bicalho, and R. O. Gilbert. 2016. Associations among Trueperella pyogenes, endometritis diagnosis, and pregnancy outcomes in dairy cows. Theriogenology 85:267-274. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.09.043

Bittar, J.H., P.J. Pinedo, C.A. Risco, J.E. Santos, W.W. Thatcher, K.E. Hencken, S. Croyle, M. Gobikrushanth, C.C. Barbosa, A. Vieira-Neto, and K.N. Galvao. 2014. Inducing ovulation early postpartum influences uterine health and fertility in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:3558-3569. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-7533

Bourne, N., D.C. Wathes, K.E. Lawrence, M. McGowan, and R.A. Laven. 2008. The effect of parenteral supplementation of vitamin E with selenium on the health and productivity of dairy cattle in the UK. Vet. J. 177: 381-387. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.06.006

Brodzki, P., K. Kostro, A. Brodzki, and U. Lisiecka. 2014. Determination of selected parameters for non-specific and specific immunity in cows with subclinical endometritis. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 148:109-114. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.06.021

Brodzki, P., K. Kostro, L. Krakowski, and J. Marczuk. 2015a. Inflammatory cytokine and acute phase protein concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis in the late postpartum period. Vet. Res. Commun 39:143-149. doi:10.1007/s11259-015-9635-4

Brodzki, P., K. Kostro, A. Brodzki, W. Wawron, J. Marczuk, and L. Kurek. 2015b. Inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterus of cows that developed endometritis during early postpartum. Theriogenology 84:11-18. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.02.006

Burfeind, O., I. Sannmann, R. Voigtsberger, and W. Heuwieser. 2014. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine the diagnostic performance of serum haptoglobin concentration for the diagnosis of acute puerperal metritis in dairy cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 149:145-151. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.07.020

Burke, C.R., S. Meier, S. McDougall, C. Compton, M. Mitchell, and J.R. Roche. 2010. Relationships between endometritis and metabolic state during the transition period in pasture-grazed dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93:5363-5373. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3356

Carneiro, L.C., A.F. Ferreira, M. Padua, J.P. Saut, A.S. Ferraudo, and R.M. Dos-Santos. 2014. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 46:1435-1439. doi:10.1007/s11250-014-0661-y

Cerri, R.L., H.M. Rutigliano, F.S. Lima, D.B. Araujo, and J.E. Santos. 2009. Effect of source of supplemental selenium on uterine health and embryo quality in high-producing dairy cows. Theriogenology 71:1127-1137. doi:10.1016/j. theriogenology.2008.12.005

de-Boer, M., B.M. Buddle, C. Heuer, H. Hussein, T. Zheng, S.J. LeBlanc, and S. McDougall. 2015. Associations between intrauterine bacterial infection, reproductive tract inflammation, and reproductive performance in pasture-based dairy cows. Theriogenology 83:1514-1524. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.01.032

de-Boer, M.W., S.J. LeBlanc, J. Dubuc, S. Meier, W. Heuwieser, S. Arlt, R.O. Gilbert, and S. McDougall. 2014. Invited review: Systematic review of diagnostic tests for reproductive-tract infection and inflammation in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:3983-3999. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-7450

Denis-Robichaud, J., and J. Dubuc. 2015a. Determination of optimal diagnostic criteria for purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 98:6848-6855. doi:10.3168/jds.2014-9120

Denis-Robichaud, J., and J. Dubuc. 2015b. Randomized clinical trial of intrauterine cephapirin infusion in dairy cows for the treatment of purulent vaginal discharge and cytological endometritis. J. Dairy Sci. 98:6856-6864. doi:10.3168/jds.2014- 9129

Dini, P., M. Farhoodi, M. Hostens, M. Van Eetvelde, O.B. Pascottini, M.H. Fazeli, and G. Opsomer. 2015. Effect of uterine lavage on neutrophil counts in postpartum dairy cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 158:25-30. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2015.04.005

Drillich, M., D. Raab, M. Wittke, and W. Heuwieser. 2005. Treatment of chronic endometritis in dairy cows with an intrauterine application of enzymes. A field trial. Theriogenology 63:1811-1823. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.05.031

Dubuc, J., T.F. Duffield, K.E. Leslie, J.S. Walton, and S.J. LeBlanc. 2010. Risk factors for postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 93:5764-5771. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3429

Dubuc, J., T.F. Duffield, K.E. Leslie, J.S. Walton, and S.J. Leblanc. 2011. Randomized clinical trial of antibiotic and prostaglandin treatments for uterine health and reproductive performance in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 94:1325-1338.

Dubuc, J., T.F. Duffield, K.E. Leslie, J.S. Walton, and S.J. LeBlanc. 2012. Risk factors and effects of postpartum anovulation in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 95:1845-1854. doi:10.3168/jds.2011-4781

Düvel, A., J. Maass, M. Heppelmann, J. Hussen, M. Koy, M. Piechotta, O. Sandra, D.G. Smith, I.M. Sheldon, I. Dieuzy-Labaye, P. Zieger, and H.J. Schuberth. 2014. Peripheral blood leukocytes of cows with subclinical endometritis show an altered cellular composition and gene expression. Theriogenology 81:906-917. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.01.007

Eckel, E.F., and B.N. Ametaj. 2016. Invited review: Role of bacterial endotoxins in the etiopathogenesis of periparturient diseases of transition dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 99:1-24. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-10727

Esposito, G., P.C. Irons, E.C. Webb, and A. Chapwanya. 2014. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 144(3-4):60-71. doi:10.1016/j. anireprosci.2013.11.007

Foley, C., A. Chapwanya, J.J. Callanan, R. Whiston, R. Miranda-CasoLuengo, J. Lu, W.G. Meijer, D.J. Lynn, and K.G. Meade. 2015. Integrated analysis of the local and systemic changes preceding the development of post-partum cytological endometritis. BMC Genomics 16:811. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1967-5

Galvão, K.N., M. Frajblat, S.B. Brittin, W.R. Butler, C.L. Guard, and R.O. Gilbert. 2009. Effect of prostaglandin F2alpha on subclinical endometritis and fertility in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 92:4906-4913. doi:10.3168/jds.2008-1984

Galvão, K.N., M. Frajblat, W.R. Butler, S.B. Brittin, C.L. Guard, and R.O. Gilbert. 2010. Effect of early postpartum ovulation on fertility in dairy cows. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 45:e207-211. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01517.x

Genis, S., A. Bach, F. Fabregas, and A. Aris. 2016. Potential of lactic acid bacteria at regulating Escherichia coli infection and inflammation of bovine endometrium. Theriogenology 85:625-637. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.09.054

Ghanem, M.E., E. Tezuka, B. Devkota, Y. Izaike, and T. Osawa. 2015. Persistence of uterine bacterial infection, and its associations with endometritis and ovarian function in postpartum dairy cows. J. Reprod. Dev. 61:54-60. doi:10.1262/jrd.2014-051

Green, M.P., A.M. Ledgard, S.E. Beaumont, M.C. Berg, K.P. McNatty, A.J. Peterson, and P.J. Back. 2011. Long-term alteration of follicular steroid concentrations in relation to subclinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows. J. Anim. Sci. 89:3551- 3560. doi:10.2527/jas.2011-3958

Hartmann, D., J. Rohkohl, S. Merbach, T. Heilkenbrinker, H.P. Klindworth, H.A. Schoon, and M. Hoedemaker. 2016. Prevalence of cervicitis in dairy cows and its effect on reproduction. Theriogenology 85:247-253. doi:10.1016/j. theriogenology.2015.09.029

Healey, G.D., C. Collier, S. Griffin, H.J. Schuberth, O. Sandra, D.G. Smith, S. Mahan, I. Dieuzy-Labaye, and I.M. Sheldon. 2016. Mevalonate biosynthesis intermediates are key regulators of innate immunity in bovine endometritis. J. Immunol. 196:823-831. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1501080

Healy, L.L., J.G. Cronin, and I.M. Sheldon. 2014. Endometrial cells sense and react to tissue damage during infection of the bovine endometrium via interleukin 1. Sci. Rep. 4:7060. doi:10.1038/srep07060

Heppelmann, M., A. Brömmling, S.E. Ulbrich, M. Weinert, M. Piechotta, C. Wrenzycki, S. Merbach, H.A. Schoon, M. Hoedemaker, and H. Bollwein. 2015. Effect of suppression of postpartum ovulation on endometrial inflammation in dairy cows. Theriogenology 84:155-162. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.03.003

Heppelmann, M., M. Weinert, S.E. Ulbrich, A. Brömmling, M. Piechotta, S. Merbach, H.A. Schoon, M. Hoedemaker, and H. Bollwein. 2016. The effect of puerperal uterine disease on histopathologic findings and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines of the endometrium in dairy cows. Theriogenology 85:1348-1356. doi:10.1016/j. theriogenology.2015.12.022

Herath, S., S.T. Lilly, D.P. Fischer, E.J. Williams, H. Dobson, C.E. Bryant, and I.M. Sheldon. 2009. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces an endocrine switch from prostaglandin F2alpha to prostaglandin E2 in bovine endometrium. Endocrinology 150:1912-1920. doi:10.1210/en.2008-1379

Jeon, S.J., A. Vieira-Neto, M. Gobikrushanth, R. Daetz, R.D. Mingoti, A.C. Parize, S.L. de Freitas, A.N. da Costa, R.C. Bicalho, S. Lima, K.C. Jeong, and K.N. Galvão. 2015. Uterine microbiota progression from calving until establishment of metritis in dairy cows. Appl Environ. Microbiol. 81:6324-6332. doi:10.1128/AEM.01753-15

Johnson, H., C.G. Torres, F. Carvallo, M. Duchens, and O.A. Peralta. 2015. Endometrial expression of selected transcripts in postpartum of primiparous Holstein cows with clinical and subclinical endometritis. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 156:34-39. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2015.02.007

Kaneko, K., and S. Kawakami. 2008. Influence of experimental intrauterine infusion of Arcanobacterium pyogenes solution on ovarian activity in cycling cows. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 70:77-83. doi:10.1292/jvms.70.77

Kasimanickam, R., J.M. Cornwell, and R.L. Nebel. 2006. Effect of presence of clinical and subclinical endometritis at the initiation of Presynch-Ovsynch program on the first service pregnancy in dairy cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 95:214-223. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2005.10.007

Kasimanickam, R., V. Kasimanickam, and J.P. Kastelic. 2014. Mucin 1 and cytokines mRNA in endometrium of dairy cows with postpartum uterine disease or repeat breeding. Theriogenology 81:952-958. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.01.018

Kim, I.H., H.G. Kang, J.K. Jeong, T.Y. Hur, and Y.H. Jung. 2014. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations in uterine flush and serum samples from dairy cows with clinical or subclinical endometritis. Theriogenology 82:427-432. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.04.022

Kimura, K., J.P. Goff, P. Canning, C. Wang, and J.A. Roth. 2014. Effect of recombinant bovine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor covalently bound to polyethylene glycol injection on neutrophil number and function in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:4842-4851. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-7242

Knudsen, L.R., C.C. Karstrup, H.G. Pedersen, J.S. Agerholm, T.K. Jensen, and K. Klitgaard. 2015. Revisiting bovine pyometra- new insights into the disease using a culture-independent deep sequencing approach. Vet. Microbiol. 175:319-324. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.12.006

Knudsen, L.R., C.C. Karstrup, H.G. Pedersen, O. Angen, J.S. Agerholm, E.L. Rasmussen, T.K. Jensen, and K. Klitgaard. 2016. An investigation of the microbiota in uterine flush samples and endometrial biopsies from dairy cows during the first 7 weeks postpartum. Theriogenology 86:642-650. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.02.016

LeBlanc, S.J. 2008. Postpartum uterine disease and dairy herd reproductive performance: a review. Vet. J. 176:102-114. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.019

LeBlanc, S.J. 2014. Reproductive tract inflammatory disease in postpartum dairy cows. Animal 8:54-63. doi:10.1017/S1751731114000524

Ledgard, A.M., G.A. Smolenski, H. Henderson, and R.S. Lee. 2015. Influence of pathogenic bacteria species present in the postpartum bovine uterus on proteome profiles. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 27:395-406. doi:10.1071/RD13144

Lüttgenau, J., B. Lingemann, O. Wellnitz, A.K. Hankele, M. Schmicke, S.E. Ulbrich, R.M. Bruckmaier, and H. Bollwein. 2016. Repeated intrauterine infusions of lipopolysaccharide alter gene expression and lifespan of the bovine corpus luteum. J. Dairy Sci. 99:6639-53. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10806

Machado, V.S., G. Oikonomou, E.K. Ganda, L. Stephens, M. Milhomem, G.L. Freitas, M. Zinicola, J. Pearson, M. Wieland, C. Guard, R.O. Gilbert, and R.C. Bicalho. 2015. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 98:3849-3858. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-9046

Madoz, L.V., M.J. Giuliodori, M. Jaureguiberry, J. Plontzke, M.

Drillich, and R.L. de-la-Sota. 2013. The relationship between endometrial cytology during estrous cycle and cutoff points for the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 96:4333-4339. doi:10.3168/jds.2012-6269

Madoz, L.V., M.J. Giuliodori, A.L. Migliorisi, M. Jaureguiberry, and R.L. de-la-Sota. 2014. Endometrial cytology, biopsy, and bacteriology for the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in grazing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:195-201. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-6836

Magata, F., M. Horiuchi, A. Miyamoto, and T. Shimizu. 2014. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits steroid production in theca cells of bovine follicles in vitro: distinct effect of LPS on theca cell function in pre- and post-selection follicles. J. Reprod. Dev. 60:280-287. doi:10.1262/jrd.2013-124

Maquivar, M.G., A.A. Barragan, J.S. Velez, H. Bothe, and G.M. Schuenemann. 2015. Effect of intrauterine dextrose on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with purulent vaginal discharge under certified organic management. J. Dairy Sci. 98:3876-3886. doi:10.3168/jds.2014-9081

Mari, G., E. Iacono, F. Toni, P.G. Predieri, and B. Merlo. 2012. Evaluation of the effectiveness of intrauterine treatment with formosulphathiazole of clinical endometritis in postpartum dairy cows. Theriogenology 78:189-200. doi:10.1016/j. theriogenology.2012.01.036

McNally, J.C., M.A. Crowe, J.F. Roche, and M.E. Beltman. 2014. Effects of physiological and/or disease status on the response of postpartum dairy cows to synchronization of estrus using an intravaginal progesterone device. Theriogenology 82:1263-1272. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.08.006

Miller, A.N., E.J. Williams, K. Sibley, S. Herath, E.A. Lane, J. Fishwick, D.M. Nash, A.N. Rycroft, H. Dobson, C.E. Bryant, and I.M. Sheldon. 2007. The effects of Arcanobacterium pyogenes on endometrial function in vitro, and on uterine and ovarian function in vivo. Theriogenology 68:972-980. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.07.013

Moeini, M.M., H. Karami, and E. Mikaeili. 2009. Effect of selenium and vitamin E supplementation during the late pregnancy on reproductive indices and milk production in heifers. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 114: 109-114. doi: 10.1016/j. anireprosci.2008.09.012

Moore, S.G., T. Fair, P. Lonergan, and S.T. Butler. 2014. Genetic merit for fertility traits in Holstein cows: IV. Transition period, uterine health, and resumption of cyclicity. J. Dairy Sci. 97:2740-2752. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-7278

Mulligan, F.J., and M.L. Doherty. 2008. Production diseases of the transition cow. Vet J. 176:3-9. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.12.018

Pascottini, O.B., P. Dini, M. Hostens, R. Ducatelle, and G. Opsomer. 2015. A novel cytologic sampling technique to diagnose subclinical endometritis and comparison of staining methods for endometrial cytology samples in dairy cows. Theriogenology 84:1438-1446. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.07.032

Peter, S., G. Michel, A. Hahn, M. Ibrahim, A. Lubke-Becker, M. Jung, R. Einspanier, and C. Gabler. 2015. Puerperal influence of bovine uterine health status on the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 66:449-462.

Polat, B., M. Cengiz, O. Cannazik, A. Colak, E. Oruc, S. Altun, S. Salar, and A. Bastan. 2015. Endometrial echotexture variables in postpartum cows with subclinical endometritis. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 155:50-55. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2015.01.015

Pothmann, H., I. Prunner, K. Wagener, M. Jaureguiberry, R.L. de la Sota, R. Erber, C. Aurich, M. Ehling-Schulz, and M. Drillich. 2015. The prevalence of subclinical endometritis and intrauterine infections in repeat breeder cows. Theriogenology 83:1249-1253. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.01.013

Priest, N.V., S. McDougall, C.R. Burke, J.R. Roche, M. Mitchell, K.L. McLeod, S.L. Greenwood, and S. Meier. 2013. The responsiveness of subclinical endometritis to a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug in pasture-grazed dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 96:4323-4332. doi:10.3168/jds.2012-6266

Prunner, I., H. Pothmann, K. Wagener, M. Giuliodori, J. Huber, M. Ehling-Schulz, and M. Drillich. 2014a. Dynamics of bacteriologic and cytologic changes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows. Theriogenology 82:1316-1322. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.08.018

Prunner, I., K. Wagener, H. Pothmann, M. Ehling-Schulz, and M. Drillich. 2014b. Risk factors for uterine diseases on small- and medium-sized dairy farms determined by clinical, bacteriological, and cytological examinations. Theriogenology 82:857- 865. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2014.06.015

Pyorala, S., J. Taponen, and T. Katila. 2014. Use of antimicrobials in the treatment of reproductive diseases in cattle and horses. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 49:16-26. doi:10.1111/rda.12324

Reppert, E.J. 2015. Evidence for the use of ceftiofur for treatment of metritis in dairy cattle. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 31:139-149. doi:10.1016/j.cvfa.2014.11.007

Ribeiro, E.S., G. Gomes, L.F. Greco, R.L. Cerri, A. Vieira-Neto, P.L. Monteiro Jr., F.S. Lima, R.S. Bisinotto, W.W. Thatcher, and J.E. Santos. 2015. Carryover effect of postpartum inflammatory diseases on developmental biology and fertility in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 99:2201-20. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-10337

Ricci, A., S. Gallo, F. Molinaro, A. Dondo, S. Zoppi, and L. Vincenti. 2015. Evaluation of subclinical endometritis and consequences on fertility in piedmontese beef cows. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 50:142-148. doi:10.1111/rda.12465

Runciman, D.J., G.A. Anderson, J. Malmo, and G.M. Davis. 2008. Effect of intrauterine treatment with cephapirin on the reproductive performance of seasonally calving dairy cows at risk of endometritis following periparturient disease. Aust. Vet. J. 86:250-258. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.2008.00302.x

Salehi, R., M.G. Colazo, M. Gobikrushanth, U. Basu, and D.J. Ambrose. 2016. Effects of prepartum oilseed supplements on subclinical endometritis, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine transcripts in endometrial cells and postpartum ovarian function in dairy cows. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 24:747-758 doi:10.1071/RD15334

Salilew-Wondim, D., S. Ibrahim, S. Gebremedhn, D. Tesfaye, M. Heppelmann, H. Bollwein, C. Pfarrer, E. Tholen, C. Neuhoff, K. Schellander, and M. Hoelker. 2016. Clinical and subclinical endometritis induced alterations in bovine endometrial transcriptome and miRNome profile. BMC Genomics 17:218. doi:10.1186/s12864-016-2513-9

Saut, J.P., G.D. Healey, A.M. Borges, and I.M. Sheldon. 2014. Ovarian steroids do not affect bovine endometrial cytokine or chemokine responses to Escherichia coli or LPS in vitro. Reproduction 148:593-606. doi:10.1530/REP-14-0230

Senosy, W., M. Uchiza, N. Tameoka, Y. Izaike, and T. Osawa. 2011. Impact of ovarian and uterine conditions on some diagnostic tests output of endometritis in postpartum high-yielding dairy cows. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 46:800-806. doi:10.1111/ j.1439-0531.2010.01744.x

Senosy, W.S., Y. Izaike, and T. Osawa. 2012. Influences of metabolic traits on subclinical endometritis at different intervals postpartum in high milking cows. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 47:666-674. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0531.2011.01941.x

Sheldon, I.M., J. Cronin, L. Goetze, G. Donofrio, and H.J. Schuberth. 2009a. Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle. Biol. Reprod. 81:1025-1032. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.109.077370

Sheldon, I.M., Lewis, G. S., S. LeBlanc, and R. O., Gilbert. 2006. Defining postpartum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenology 65:1516-1530. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.08.021

Sheldon, I.M., S.B. Price, J. Cronin, R.O. Gilbert, and J.E. Gadsby. 2009b. Mechanisms of infertility associated with clinical and subclinical endometritis in high producing dairy cattle. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 44:1-9. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0531.2009.01465.x

Silper, B.F., A.M. Madureira, T.A. Burnett, A.C. Fernandes, F.M. Abreu, D.M. Veira, J.L. Vasconcelos, and R.L. Cerri. 2016. Diagnosis of uterine and vaginal disorders by different methodologies is affected by concentration of estradiol in plasma from lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 99:4795-4807. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-10483

Silva, P.R., A.R. Dresch, K.S. Machado, J.G. Moraes, K. Lobeck-Luchterhand, T.K. Nishimura, M.A. Ferreira, M.I. Endres, and R.C. Chebel. 2014. Prepartum stocking density: effects on metabolic, health, reproductive, and productive responses. J. Dairy Sci. 97:5521-5532. doi:10.3168/jds.2014-8093

Strüve, K., K. Herzog, F. Magata, M. Piechotta, K. Shirasuna, A. Miyamoto, and H. Bollwein. 2013. The effect of metritis on luteal function in dairy cows. BMC Vet. Res. 9:244. doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-244

Toni, F., L. Vincenti, A. Ricci, and Y.H. Schukken. 2015. Postpartum uterine diseases and their impacts on conception and days open in dairy herds in Italy. Theriogenology 84:1206-1214. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.06.022

Tsousis, G., R. Sharifi, and M. Hoedemaker. 2009. Associations between the clinical signs of chronic endometritis with ovarian cysts and body condition loss in German Holstein Friesian cows. J. Vet. Sci. 10:337-341. doi:10.4142/jvs.2009.10.4.337

Vercouteren, M.M., J.H. Bittar, P.J. Pinedo, C.A. Risco, J.E. Santos, A. Vieira-Neto, and K. N. Galvão. 2015. Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 98:229-239. doi:10.3168/jds.2014-8460

Vieira-Neto, A., R.O. Gilbert, W.R. Butler, J.E. Santos, E.S. Ribeiro, M.M. Vercouteren, R.G. Bruno, J.H. Bittar, and K.N. Galvão. 2014. Individual and combined effects of anovulation and cytological endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:5415-5425. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-7725

Vieira-Neto, A., F.S. Lima, J.E. Santos, R.D. Mingoti, G.S. Vasconcellos, C.A. Risco, and K.N. Galvao. 2016. Vulvovaginal laceration as a risk factor for uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 99:4629-4637. doi:10.3168/jds.2016- 10872

Wagener, K., T. Grunert, I. Prunner, M. Ehling-Schulz, and M. Drillich. 2014. Dynamics of uterine infections with Escherichia coli, Streptococcus uberis and Trueperella pyogenes in post-partum dairy cows and their association with clinical endometritis. Vet J. 202:527-532. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.08.023

Wagener, K., I. Prunner, H. Pothmann, M. Drillich, and M. Ehling-Schulz. 2015. Diversity and health status specific fluctuations of intrauterine microbial communities in postpartum dairy cows. Vet. Microbiol. 175:286-293. doi: 10.1016/j. vetmic.2014.11.017

Walker, C.G., S. Meier, H. Hussein, S. McDougall, C.R. Burke, J.R. Roche, and M.D. Mitchell. 2015. Modulation of the immune system during postpartum uterine inflammation. Physiol. Genomics 47:89-101. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00098.2014

Wathes, D.C., Z. Cheng, W. Chowdhury, M.A. Fenwick, R. Fitzpatrick, D.G. Morris, J. Patton, and J.J. Murphy. 2009. Negative energy balance alters global gene expression and immune responses in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows. Physiol. Genomics 39:1-13. doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00064.2009

Wathes, D.C., M. Fenwick, Z. Cheng, N. Bourne, S. Llewellyn, D.G. Morris, D. Kenny, J. Murphy, and R. Fitzpatrick. 2007. Influence of negative energy balance on cyclicity and fertility in the high producing dairy cow. Theriogenology 68:S232-S241. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.04.006

Williams, E.J. 2013. Drivers of post-partum uterine disease in dairy cattle. Reprod Domest Anim. 48:53-58. doi:10.1111/rda.12205

Yasui, T., K. McCann, R.O. Gilbert, D.V. Nydam, and T.R. Overton. 2014. Associations of cytological endometritis with energy metabolism and inflammation during the periparturient period and early lactation in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97:2763- 2770. doi:10.3168/jds.2013-7322

Yasui, T., M.M. McCarthy, C.M. Ryan, R.O. Gilbert, M.J. Felippe, G.D. Mechor, and T.R. Overton. 2015. Effects of monensin and starch level in early lactation diets on indices of immune function in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 99:1351-63. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-9572


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© 2017 Universidad de Costa Rica. Para ver más detalles sobre la distribución de los artículos en este sitio visite el aviso legal. Este sitio es desarrollado por UCRIndex y Open Journal Systems. ¿Desea cosechar nuestros metadatos? dirección OAI-PMH: