A review of leukemia worldwide is discussed, focusing on etiology, diagnosis and treatment. The history of research of this type of cancer in Costa Rica is presented through the first hospital diagnosis, the arrival of clinical and laboratory hematologists, the establishment of specialized laboratories, the local hematology teaching programs and the voluntary associations that help patients with leukemia. A brief review of Costa Rican publications in this area and the future of this problem in our country is also shown.
Keywords: leukemia, leukemia history, hematology, genetics, Costa Rica