Abstract

The lilac-crowned parrot (Amazona finschi) is an endemic species restricted to lowlands of the Mexican Pacific coast and is currently considered as endangered. It has been documented that it shows altitudinal and seasonal migrations along its distributional range, suggesting that its ecological and temporal distribution is still uncertain. We modeled the potential distribution of the A. finschi considering the two main activity seasons for the species: reproductive and non-reproductive. We used 428 historical occurrences (1882-2014), obtained from open access databases, combined with five environmental layers: three climatic and two topographic for each season, to perform ecological niche models using Maxent. We then transferred each model to the rest of the months to analyze the seasonal movements guided by climate. Differences in ecological variables between seasons were evaluated using a t-test. The geographic correspondence among the parrot distribution and the resources (plants) distributionswere analyzed by superimposing maps. A marked seasonality in the distribution of A. finschi was observed. Ecologically, the species displays greater amplitude during the breeding seasons in terms of minimum temperature, but a noticeable reduction as far as precipitation is concerned. The distribution of food and nesting resources largely corresponds to the distribution of this parrot. There is a wide area in the center of the geographical distribution in which the species finds conditions that meet both periods of activity, as well as transition conditions between these periods. Finally, our results on the seasonal variation in the geographical and ecological distribution of this species, possess a strong ecological meaning in the understanding of other species distribution, particularly those associated with highly seasonal environments, and definitively will contribute to the conservation of this species. 

Keywords: breeding season, modelling, ecological niche, endangered, nest, diet, coexistence.