Genetic divergences between Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae) genotypes found through morphological traits
The species Spondias mombin, is native to the Amazonian region. Since these trees’ cultivation is incipient, their exploitation is done through extraction techniques. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic divergences between S. mombin genotypes and to quantify the relative contribution from 12 morphological traits of the species’ fruits and seeds, as well as to collect data able to subsidize future research on the species conservation and domestication. 60 genotypes were assessed in total, and ten fruits of each genotype were analyzed. Eight descriptors were used for fruit characterization, namely: fruit mass, pulp weight, volume, length, width, thickness, total soluble solids content and hydrogenionic potential. The seed descriptors were mass, length, width and thickness. The data were assessed through the principal components and groupings by applying the UPGMA and Tocher methods. They were analyzed in the GENES software, based on the dissimilarity matrix (Euclidean distance average). The analysis applied to the principal components showed that the first three components explained 83 % accumulated variation. The main traits contributing to the genotype discrimination were fruit width, fruit pulp weight, pH, seed length and thickness, and the most responsive traits to S. mombin genotype selection. The features fruit mass, seed width, fruit thickness, fruit volume, fruit length, seed mass and total soluble solid content presented the smallest contribution to diversity. The grouping methods UPGMA and Tocher evidenced genetic divergence between the analyzed genotypes. Genotypes 37 and 41 were more divergent than the others, what makes them promising for crossings in future genetic enhancement programs focused on the species’ domestication.
Keywords: , cajá, fruitful, Amazonian rainforest, genetic resource.