Distribution and effect of mycorrhizal fungi in the coffee agroecosystem: A review
Introduction: The coffee agroecosystem, the ecological significance and the interaction with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Coffee is a highly mycotrophic plant, as the interaction between coffee and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been studied among different tropical countries. The vast majority of the works indicates that coffee is benefited from the mycorrhizal association, where the AMF confers protection against pathogens and diseases, increases water absorption, as well as it increases the adaptation of the plant at transplant from nurseries to the main plantation. Objective: The aim of the review was to summarize and analyze the research around the association between coffee and AMF of the last 10 years. Our work also considered the pioneer works in Brazil and taxonomic papers that report the identification of species in this agroecosystem. Methods: An extensive review of bibliographic data was made of the main coffee-producing countries. Most of the research considered in this review goes back up to 10 years, but when data was not available, we considered classic papers on the topic. We organized the number of reported species per country and their ecological role in each work. We also visualized the general distribution of this diversity in the world, regarding bibliographic reports. Most of this works involve coffee plantations and greenhouse studies and they are focused on their ecological meaning. The reports that only reported genera or where ambiguous were used as reference but not considered for the final analysis. Results: The collected data from shows that AMF should be included in the replantation of coffee. The most relevant finding is that the AMF species associated to coffee represent more than a third of the total reported species in the world and the highest richness has been reported in Colombia. These reports include mostly classic taxonomy due to low molecular reports.