The first objective was to know the prevalence of Mazahua households living in extreme poverty, and where malnourished preschool children co-exist with overweight and obese mothers, in this study three socio-nutritional variables were compared (family income, mother's education and nutritional adequacy of the daily diet) among these households and those formed by malnourished children and non-obese mothers. A transversal study was carried out (2006-2007) in the Mazahua community of San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipality of Temascalcingo; which included 85 households integrated by malnourished preschoolers registered to the Opportunities program. The nutritional status of preschool children was determined using anthropometric indicators and the BMI of the mothers of the infants was obtained. A socio-nutritional survey was given, including the 24 hour recall. The analysis was complemented by participant observation. 83% of Mazahua mothers were overweight or obese. The nutritional status of preschool children with obese mothers had a higher percentage of malnutrition (76%).In regards to the gender variable, it was found that 54% of children with obese mothers were short in body height. When relating the educational level of the mother, this variable was statistically significant (p=0.015), where illiteracy is more related to child malnutrition of mothers who have standard weight or less. Finally, Mazahua households with obese and non-obese mothers do not show significant differences based on their dietary and nutritional characteristics. The high prevalence of households integrated by malnourished preschoolers with obese mothers is another symptom of poverty in indigenous areas in Mexico, where low Human Development Indexes prevail.
Keywords: obesity, malnutrition in children, poverty, mazahuas.