Objective: To compare the mortality attributable to tobacco consumption in selected Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico) between the years 2009 and 2013. Methods: In order to estimate the mortality attributable to risk factors, the Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) methodology was used. Years of Life Expectancy Lost (YLEL) were calculated following the methodology proposed by Arriaga. Secondary data from the national statistics agency of each country were used. Results: The highest percentages of all deaths due tobacco were observed among Argentinian and Chilean men (14.4 and 14.3% of the total deaths, respectively), followed by Mexicans (12.5% of the total deaths). Among women, the highest percentage was registered in Chile (8% of total deaths), followed by Mexico and Argentina (5.3, and 5.1% of total deaths, respectively). For both sexes, Brazil recorded the lowest percentages (5.4 and 2.8% of the total deaths, for men and women). In terms of life expectancy, the most affected by mortality due to tobacco consumption were the men and women of Argentina, who lost 1.77 and 0.65 years of life expectancy, respectively, followed very closely by the Chilean men and women. Conclusions: Men and women of Argentina had the greatest loss of life expectancy due to tobacco; this is consistent with the incipient policy against tobacco implemented in that country. In contrast, in the other countries studied, tobacco control policies were implemented earlier. However, tobacco remains an important cause of mortality in all these countries, despite the great efforts to reduce its consumption.

Keywords: Non-communicable diseases, Mortality, Tobacco, Public health, Latin America