Introduction: The objective is to analyze the prevalence of delivery by cesarean section in Mexico among 2011-2014, to identify some of the factors associated with its occurrence. Methods: A descriptive analysis and a multilevel logistic model was conducted among the data for Birth Information Subsystem, characteristics for the mother and context. Results: Identified that the factors associated with a greater likelihood that delivery result in cesarean section, are higher levels of education, greater number of prenatal visits, an early start to prenatal visits, giving birth in private health. Also a greater likelihood of prolonged hospitalization when delivery is by cesarean section. Conclusions: An increase in the number of caesarean sections in public hospitals is observed from the Popular Insurance assurance scheme; and the direct relationship between the multiple factors analyzed and the caesarean section is confirmed, including higher education, living in predominantly indigenous municipalities, as well as in municipalities with the highest human development index.

Keywords: Caesarean section, medicalizatio, birth, violence, reproductive rights, Mexico