https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/aieActualidades Investigativas en Educación ISSN electrónico: 1409-4703

Concepciones sobre retroalimentación del aprendizaje: Evidencias desde la Evaluación Docente en Chile

Gloria Contreras Pérez, Carmen Gloria Zúñiga González



DOI: https://doi.org/10.15517/aie.v18i3.34327

Resumen


El siguiente artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación realizada con base en el análisis de dos documentos del portafolio del Sistema de Evaluación del Desempeño Docente en Chile: un procedimiento de evaluación corregido de un estudiante y la respectiva retroalimentación que la persona docente le realizaría a este estudiante en modalidad de diálogo. Su objetivo general consistió en caracterizar el tipo de retroalimentación realizada por quienes enseñan e inferir las concepciones subyacentes. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, de carácter exploratorio y descriptivo, consistente en un análisis documental con base en categorías pre-definidas. En total, se analizaron los procedimientos de evaluación y retroalimentaciones que 158 docentes presentaron en su portafolio el año 2012. Los resultados muestran que en el procedimiento de evaluación corregido, la retroalimentación se dirige a explicar o justificar el puntaje y calificación obtenida por el estudiante, sugiriendo una concepción orientada a la corrección. En la modalidad de diálogo, la retroalimentación se dirige, por un lado, al ego del estudiante, alabándolo o felicitándolo sin vinculación a su aprendizaje, lo que implica una concepción de retroalimentación como elogio. Por otro lado, se dirige al trabajo del estudiante y se focaliza en sus errores o ausencias, sugiriendo una concepción de retroalimentación como especificación del aprendizaje no logrado, con escasa presencia de sugerencias para mejorar. Se concluye que la retroalimentación, a partir de la evaluación, dista mucho de ser una herramienta educativa que promueva mejoras permanentes en el aprendizaje estudiantil.

Palabras clave


retroalimentación; evaluación docente; concepciones; Chile

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Referencias


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