https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/pemPensar en Movimiento: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud ISSN Impreso: 1409-0724 ISSN electrónico: 1659-4436

CONDUCTA OCUPACIONAL SEDENTARIA Y SOLUCIONES PARA AUMENTAR LA TERMOGÉNESIS NO ASOCIADA AL EJERCICIO

Haley M. Scott, Tess N. Tyton, Craig A. Horswill



DOI: https://doi.org/10.15517/pensarmov.v14i2.27496

Resumen


Conforme aumenta la prevalencia de la obesidad en todo el mundo, los investigadores buscan explicaciones para este fenómeno, en particular aquellas relevantes al gasto energético. Se ha identificado que la termogénesis no asociada al ejercicio, abreviada como NEAT (por sus siglas en inglés), es un componente discreto, pero a la vez considerable, del gasto energético diario total. Las exigencias de algunas ocupaciones limitan la disposición de tiempo para la actividad física planificada y claramente reducen la NEAT, lo cual contribuye a las conductas sedentarias que provocan la adiposidad aumentada. Se ha identificado específicamente al tiempo sentado prolongado durante la jornada laboral como un factor de riesgo para la obesidad y las enfermedades crónicas, independientemente de otros factores de riesgo existentes. Se han puesto en práctica algunas estrategias prácticas para aumentar la NEAT durante la jornada laboral: existen estaciones de trabajo que requieren mantener el equilibrio mientras se trabaja sentado en una pelota suiza (bola de ejercicio) o trabajar de pie, también otras en las que se pedalea sentado o se camina en una banda sin fin incorporada al escritorio, para contrarrestar los períodos prolongados de conducta sedentaria en el trabajo. Aunque hay pocos datos sobre los beneficios crónicos de estas estaciones, aquellas que promueven más movimiento —las estaciones de pedaleo o de caminata—aumentan los MET y el gasto energético total más que las otras alternativas. La desventaja de moverse más es que podría haber una disminución en la atención del trabajo de escritorio y, por lo tanto, una disminución en el funcionamiento cognitivo; sin embargo, los datos no son consistentes y puede ser que el beneficio para la salud sea igual o mayor que la desventaja de experimentar algunas pequeñas distracciones durante las tareas de escritorio.

Palabras clave


metabolismo; gasto energético; salud ocupacional

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Referencias


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