Pensar en Movimiento: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud ISSN Impreso: 1409-0724 ISSN electrónico: 1659-4436

Age and gender differences in fundamental motor skills (original version in English)
PDF_EN (English)
XML_EN (English)

Palabras clave

object control
motor performance
gender bias
diferencias de género

Cómo citar

Jiménez Díaz, J., Salazar Rojas, W., & Morera, M. (2015). Age and gender differences in fundamental motor skills (original version in English). Pensar En Movimiento: Revista De Ciencias Del Ejercicio Y La Salud, 13(2), 1–16.


Fundamental motor skills are the basis for participation in more advanced lifetime activities. Whereas considerable research has been reported on motor behavior of children, much less is known about performance in later years, especially adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine age and gender differences on fundamental motor skills (FMS) ability across three age groups: children (M = 9.37 yr., SD = 1.26), adolescents (M = 14.80 yr., SD = 2.04) and young-adults (M = 19.88 yr., SD = 2.72). Participants (n = 114) were assessed on five locomotor skills (run, gallop, slide, hop, and distance jump) and five object control skills (bounce, catch, overhand throw, strike and kick) using the Test for Fundamental Motor Skills, which is a process-oriented instrument. ANOVA results comparing gender and group revealed no significant interactions. Moreover, main effects for group were found for three individual skills: galloping –adolescents and young-adults performed better than children (< .01)–, throwing –children and adolescents performed better than young-adults (< .01) –, and kicking –young-adults performed better than children and adolescents (< .05)–. Also, we found main effects for gender for total FMS ability (< .01), locomotor subscale (< .05) and object control subscale (< .01), and for six individual motor skills: run (< .05), jump (< .05), throw (< .01), kick (< .01), bounce (< .01) and strike (< .01); males outperformed females for all the skills. However, in view of total FMS ability, locomotor skills and object control skills results suggest similar performance across ages. Therefore, it is important to enhance fundamental motor skills at all ages, as an option to help individuals engage in physical activities.
PDF_EN (English)
XML_EN (English)


Barnett, L. M., van Beurden, E., Morgan, P. J., Brooks, L. O., & Beard, J. R. (2010). Gender differences in motor skill proficiency from childhood to adolescence: A longitudinal study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(2), 162–170. Retrieved from

Carley, M. (2010). The relationship between fundamental motor skill development and lifetime participation in physical activity. PSAHPERD, winter, 31–33.

Cohen, K. E., Morgan, P. J., Plotnikoff, R. C., Callister, R., & Lubans, D. R. (2014). Fundamental movement skills and physical activity among children living in low-income communities: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(1), 49–58.

Gabbard, C. P. (2012). Lifelong Motor Development (6th ed.). San Francisco: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company. Retrieved from

Gallahue, D. L., & Ozmun, J. C. (2005). Understanding Motor Development: Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Retrieved from

Goodway, J. D., & Branta, C. F. (2003). Influence of a motor skill intervention on fundamental motor skill development of disadvantaged preschool children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74(1), 36–46.

Hardy, L. L., Reinten-Reynolds, T., Espinel, P., Zask, A., & Okely, A. D. (2012). Prevalence and correlates of low fundamental movement skill competency in children. Pediatrics, 130(2), e390–e398.

Jiménez, J., Salazar, W., & Morera, M. (2013). Diseño y validación de un instrumento para la evaluación de patrones básicos de movimiento. Motricidad. European Journal of Human Movement, 31(0), 87–97. Retrieved from

Logan, S. W., Robinson, L. E., Wilson, A. E., & Lucas, W. A. (2012). Getting the fundamentals of movement: A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of motor skill interventions in children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 38(3), 305–315.

Lorson, K. M., Stodden, D. F., Langendorfer, S. J., & Goodway, J. D. (2013). Age and gender differences in adolescent and adult overarm throwing. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84(2), 239–244.

Lubans, D. R., Morgan, P. J., Cliff, D. P., Barnett, L. M., & Okely, A. D. (2010). Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents. Sports Medicine, 40(12), 1019–1035.

Okely, A. D., Booth, M. L., & Chey, T. (2004). Relationships between body composition and fundamental movement skills among children and adolescents. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75(3), 238–247.

Okely, A. D., Booth, M. L., & Patterson, J. W. (2001). Relationship of physical activity to fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(11), 1899–1904.

Robinson, L. E. (2011). The relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschool children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(4), 589–596.

Slotte, S., Sääkslahti, A., Metsämuuronen, J., & Rintala, P. (2014). Fundamental movement skill proficiency and body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in eight-year-old children. Early Child Development and Care, 1–11.

Southall, J., Okely, A. D., & Steele, J. (2004). Actual and perceived physical competence in overweight and nonoverweight children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 16(1), 15–24. Retrieved from

Spessato, B., Gabbard, C., & Valentini, N. C. (2013). The role of motor competence and body mass index in children’s activity levels in physical education classes. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 32(2), 118–130. Retrieved from

Spessato, B., Gabbard, C., Valentini, N., & Rudisill, M. (2012). Gender differences in Brazilian children’s fundamental movement skill performance. Early Child Development and Care, 183(7), 916-923.

Stodden, D. F., & Goodway, J. D. (2007). The dynamic association between motor skill development and physical activity. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 78(8), 33–49.

Stodden, D. F., Goodway, J. D., Langendorfer, S. J., Roberton, M. A., Rudisill, M. E., Garcia, C., & Garcia, L. E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 60(2), 290–306.

Stodden, D. F., Langendorfer, S., & Roberton, M. A. (2009). The association between motor skill competence and physical fitness in young adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80(2), 223–229.

Stodden, D. F., True, L. K., Langendorfer, S. J., & Gao, Z. (2013). Associations among selected motor skills and health-related fitness: indirect evidence for Seefeldt’s proficiency barrier in young adults? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 84(3), 397–403.

Valentini, N., & Rudisill, M. E. (2004). Motivational climate, motor-skill development, and perceived competence: Two studies of developmentally delayed kindergarten children. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 23(3), 216–234. Retrieved from

Wrotniak, B. H., Epstein, L. H., Dorn, J. M., Jones, K. E., & Kondilis, V. A. (2006). The relationship between motor proficiency and physical activity in children. Pediatrics, 118(6), e1758–e1765.



Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.